• Professional development materials for school bus safety with special considerations for English Language Learners (ELLs) and students with special needs.

      Kahn, Judy B. (2015)
      This curriculum project brings together two important topics: School bus safety and meeting the needs of English Language Learners (ELLs). ELLs are students whose native language is not English and who are in the process of becoming proficient in English (Wright, 2010). The problem this work addressed is ELLs may not receive equal access to school bus safety information since it is not delivered in a language that they can understand. The purpose of this project was to create Professional Development materials for school principals and bus drivers to help them work together in conducting school bus safety drills throughout the school year, in a district with a large population of ELLs. The district also transports many students with special needs, so considerations for these students were addressed as well. This workshop addressed the safety aspects of safely loading and unloading, crossing the road, waiting for the bus, emergency situations, and interactions with parents. The author reviewed court cases and state and federal legislation requiring ELLs and students with special needs to receive equal access to the information that their peers receive, in addition to New York State Commissioner’s Regulations and school bus driver training materials. These documents were reviewed to demonstrate a need for access to relevant information for school personnel and students. It is hoped that school bus safety training for ELLs and students with special needs will be improved, with increased knowledge on the best practices for delivering this information to these students.
    • Professional development plan for cooperative teaching.

      Bestine, Lauren L. (31/10/2013)
      Many schools have been faced with the challenge of meeting the needs of its diverse learners. Many districts have turned to co-teaching as the answer to the question of how to meet the needs of all students. The review of the literature follows the history of special education from self-contained all the way to inclusion, touching on the laws that have been passed to help assure that each student is guaranteed access to the least restrictive environment possible. Co-teaching is shown as an effective approach to meet the needs of the students. Five approaches have been thoroughly explained and then a full and complete professional development program has been designed to be implemented in a rural school district in western New York.
    • Professors' and students' perceptions towards English writing challenges at Qassim University of Saudi Arabia

      Almuhailib, Badar (2016-05)
      This study investigated professors’ and students’ perceptions toward writing difficulties that Arab English learners would encounter when writing in English. This study applied to students who study in the English department at Qassim University (QU), Saudi Arabia. A survey was distributed to 86 students studying in the English Department in QU. Three of English language professors teaching in the same Department at QU were asked about their beliefs of writing challenges that many students face. The results showed that professors and students held different perceptions toward English writing difficulties that were found reported by the two surveys. Hence, professors should take into consideration the students’ perceptions in order to build instructions and curriculum accordingly.
    • A Project-Based Learning 6th Grade Science Unit Aligned to the Next Generation Science Standard

      Drummond, Kelsey (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      Project-Based Learning (PBL) has become a prevalent term in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematic (STEM) classrooms. Teachers are introducing hands on and student-centered learning into their science classrooms to create a different atmosphere. By using PBL in the classroom environment for consecutive years of education, a gain in academic development and social skills are created. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are used heavily throughout K-12th grade as the science curriculum. With limited resources provided for middle school science teachers, this PBL unit will focus on how 6th grade students can design a model to minimize water and land pollution in the environment around their school community. Background knowledge on pollution and human impact on the environment throughout the world will help student succeed during this unit. Guest speakers and field trips to their community water source and surrounding land will help influence students design model. This unit can be modified for 7th or 8th grade science teachers teaching the same curriculum.
    • Pyruvate Kinase regulates Gurken translation by reduced TOR activity in Drosophila Melanogaster.

      Blundon, Malachi Andrew (2013-01-23)
      Gurken (Grk) expression is required to specify the polarity of the developing oocyte during Drosophila oogenesis. Proper localization and translation of grk transcripts is required to achieve proper axis specification. Gkr translation initiation has been shown to be cap-dependent and require the activity of the DEAD-box RNA helicase, Vasa. Vasa activity can be repressed by the ATR/Chk2-dependent meiotic checkpoint when DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) persist in meiosis. Unrepaired DSBs in oocyte development of spindle-class mutants activate this checkpoint and result in inefficient grk translation and loss of dorsal fates. This inefficient grk translation is thought to be related to reduced Vasa activity. In a screen for suppressors of the ventralized eggshell phenotype seen in spindle-BBU mutants, we identified a mutation in the PyK gene. We show that PyK mutations suppress the eggshell phenotype independent of the DSB repair delay and Vasa phosphorylation seen in spn-B mutants. This suggests that the eggshell phenotype is corrected by overcoming the translational block of grk transcripts seen in spindle mutants. PyK has been identified as a member of the TOR signaling pathway. Direct inhibition of the TOR kinase with rapamyacin suppresses the ventralized eggshell phenotype in spn-B mutant females. PyK modulates TOR kinase activity through the TSC1/2 heterodimer. During dietary starvation, TOR activity promotes capdependent translation by restraining the activity of the translation inhibitor eIF4E binding protein (4EBP). We hypothesize that reduced TOR activity promotes grk translation independent of the ATR/Chk2 meiotic checkpoint pathway. Recent data indicates that this may be achieved by way of IRES-dependent translation initiation of grk when TOR activity is low. This discovery suggests flies are able to maintain the translation of developmentally important transcripts such as grk during periods of nutrient limitation.
    • P² [:] Preference and Performance.

      Bockhahn, Kristi Jo (2013-01-17)
      No author abstract.
    • Re-Visionist Women Writers.

      Tosun, Tulin Ece (2013-01-28)
      No author abstract.
    • Readability of the common core standards 11-CCR text exemplars : a text sequence reference guide.

      Carapella, Jenell A. (10/01/2013)
      For a smooth transition, secondary students must be equipped with the skills to navigate and comprehend texts associated with college and career readiness. Educators are concerned that a gap in text complexity may cause some students’ lack in readiness. Although many factors play a part in students’ comprehension of a text (e.g. readability, the purpose for reading, and motivation), readability statistics may predict comprehensibility. This research used the Flesch-Kincaid and SMOG readability formulas to evaluate the readability grade levels of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) 11-CCR text exemplars. Results indicate that CCSS texts were, on average, within the expected grade level band, informational texts are more complex than literary texts, and the Flesch-Kincaid readability formula evaluates the texts as less complex, on average, than the SMOG formula. The results informed the development of the Text Sequence Reference guide that rank orders all 34 CCSS 11-CCR grade level texts according to their relative complexity. This reference guide may prove useful when developing an English Language Arts curriculum that aligns with the new standards.
    • Readability of the New York State Regents exam in United States history and government.

      Morton, Daniel E. (2015)
      This study investigated the readability of the multiple-choice section on the New York State Regents Exam in United States History and Government. Every June Regents Exam, from 2014-1990, was analyzed for readability. The Homan, Hewitt, & Linder (1994) formula was utilized because this formula measures grade level readability for multiple-choice questions. Readability was determined by randomly selecting three multiple-choice questions from each exam to analyze. Readability was calculated for each question and averaged to determine the mean score for each exam. This study revealed that over time the NYS Regent Exam in United States History and Government has become easier to read. There are far-reaching implications with regard to teacher evaluations and test reliability and validity, as a result of this study.
    • Reading anxiety among Arabic speaking students.

      Kress, Michelle T. (2015)
      Reading anxiety can become a great hindrance to an Arabic speaking student’s language acquisition. The anxiety acts as a barrier to the reading process making it difficult for the student to be able to decode or interact with the text (Krashen, 1983). There is still a limited amount of research with Arabic student participants and focus has been mostly given to other areas of language anxiety (Ahmad et al., 2013; Horwitz, 2010; Horwitz, Horwitz & Cope, 1986; Huang, 2012; Saito, Horwitz & Garza, 1999). Therefore, the present study investigated Arabic speaking high school students and teachers’ perceptions of the factors that correlate with reading anxiety. A five point Likert scale survey adapted from the research of Ahmad et al. (2013) was implemented to investigate student perceptions. Observations and interviews were conducted to investigate teacher perceptions. Strategy instruction was examined through observations to see whether or not teachers were incorporating strategies within the classroom to reduce reading anxiety. It was found that the Arabic students were suffering from reading anxiety and teachers were finding it difficult to generate effective strategies to alleviate their reading anxiety. Further research is necessary to determine effective strategies and methods for Arabic students to reduce reading anxiety.
    • Reading beyond the blood.

      Hebert, Jacqueline (2013-07-08)
      No Author abstract.
    • Reading preferences of elementary males and females.

      Langworthy, Matthew (08/01/2013)
      No Author abstract.
    • Real World Experiences in Social Studies Curriculum in a Kindergarten Classroom

      Walczak, Christina (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-12)
      Kindergarten curriculum has vastly changed in the United States since Elizabeth Peabody started the first English speaking kindergarten started in 1860 (Fromberg, 2006). The curriculum has changed from play-based, exploratory learning to a more academic learning process focusing on meeting standards, instruction, and assessment (McLennan, 2011). For teachers, it is extremely difficult to balance the required curriculum/assessments and to implement more developmentally appropriate practices such as play for kindergarten aged children in social studies. The main purpose of my project is to incorporate more exploratory social studies curriculum into my kindergarten classroom. By including more social studies in an elementary classroom, it helps to create a deeper community of thinkers, learners, and civilians that can work together to understand and solve problems in society. I reviewed the C3 Framework, Inquiry Design Model (IDM), National Curriculum Standards for Social Studies, and the New York State social studies resource toolkit, including all their resources in order to generate ideas for my curriculum project. The curriculum allotted three to five days for this curriculum. It can be modified to take longer than 5 days depending on the classroom and community. Therefore, through reading this curriculum, teacher can get clear guidance in implementing hands on social studies in a meaningful way. This curriculum project was made as a tool of reference to guide the findings of a single way to use hands on experiences in social studies in a kindergarten classroom.
    • Realizing the socio-cultural and linguistic challenges that International college students have in their program study, and evidence that they can succeed

      Liu, Xiaomeng (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      In recent years, the number of international students studying in the United States has been rapidly increasing (Fass-Holmes & Vaughn, 2015; Kim, 2013; Lee, 2009; Martirosyam, Hwang, & Wanjohi, 2015; Seo & Ljungberg, 2005; Wu, Garza, & Guzman, 2015). Due to distinct linguistic and socio-cultural backgrounds in which this student group has, international students thus may encounter a lot of differences and challenges during their academic study in higher education in the United States. Furthermore, when they get involved with their different focus of academic study in terms of majors, disciplines, even different classroom settings, the challenges become more complex and unique for individuals. Therefore, there is a need for realization and illustration of these challenges. Today, there are a number of studies that have demonstrated the challenges that international students have. Very few studies, however, have focused specifically on the difficulties encountered in terms of disciplines, and majors, which could be more in depth for illustration. The goal of the study is to illustrate the challenges that international students have especially in consideration of the problems that might be encountered in different fields of study and to demonstrate the coping strategies to come to their needs. The participants of this study include international students from East Asian countries and professors from different departments in a comprehensive university in Western New York. An online survey, as well as individual interviews, were implemented to collect data from both international students and faculty. The result illustrated the significant challenges that international students have in two perspectives: language and socio-culture. Besides, practical and constructive coping strategies were suggested and recommended by both international students and professors. This study may serve as a basis for future research in this focus of the area. [from abstract]
    • Reducing redirections in a 1:12:1 Kindergarten classroom.

      Grundtisch, Nathan (2014)
      The primary purpose of the proposed study is to improve students’ on-task and pro-social behavior in class, while simultaneously decreasing their disruptive behavior. To do this, I will use a intervention package called 3 Jars which is an adapted version of the 4 Jars Intervention. Which consists of the following components: (a) randomized interdependent group contingencies, (b) randomized target behavior and student selection, and (c) unknown rewards in the form of a mystery motivator.
    • Relationship between pre-operative Nasalance Scores, Velopharyngeal, Closure Patterns, and Pharyngeal Flap Revision rate in patients with Velopharyngeal Insufficiency.

      Mason, Kazlin N. (2013-07-09)
      Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is a disorder that results from the improper contact of the soft palate, lateral pharyngeal walls, and posterior pharyngeal wall. These muscle groups make up the velopharyngeal sphincter. This closure is necessary for the production of oral speech sounds. Improper closure leads to the production of nasal emissions during speech and an inability to produce pressure consonants. VPI is commonly treated surgically. A successful outcome of the surgery is determined by perceptual judgments of a Speech-Language Pathologist and with detailed objective instrumental evaluation (Losken, Williams, Burstein, Malick, & Riski, 2003). It is also necessary to examine the occurrence of surgical revision rates, as this directly relates to the success rate of a chosen surgical technique for a patient with VPI. Past studies have assessed the relationship between patient’s closure patterns with VPI and/or the type of revisions necessary when pharyngoplasty failed (Loksen, et. al, 2003 ; Kasten, Buchman, Stevenson, & Berger, 1997; Witt, Marsh, Marty-Grames, & Muntz, 1995; Amour, Fischbach, Klaiman, & Fisher, 2005; Schultz, Heller, Gens & Lewin, 1973). Fewer studies have systematically studied pre-surgical implications that exist, which could offer valuable information to patients and surgeons. This study investigated if pre-operative oral word and sentence nasometric values and velopharyngeal closure pattern identified patients requiring revision surgery after an initial pharyngeal flap. Fifty-nine patients who were diagnosed with VPI and underwent a pharyngeal flap surgery were included in this study. All patients underwent an evaluation of velopharyngeal function by the craniofacial team at Women's and Children's Hospital of Buffalo (WCHOB). The evaluation included perceptual and quantitative speech measures, clinical screening of velopharyngeal closure, and an oral peripheral examination. Perceptual ratings of speech were determined through live speech samples of the production of single words, sentences, and conversational speech. Resonance was categorized as hypernasal, hyponasal, mixed, or normal. Patients, who were categorized as having hypernasal speech, hyponasal speech, or nasal air emissions, were evaluated using nasometric instrumentation and multiview video fluoroscopy/nasoendoscopy. A regression analysis was performed at an alpha level of ρ ≤ 0.05; indicating pre-operative nasometry scores were significantly higher for those patients who eventually required a revision to the initial pharyngeal flap for alveolar, bilabial, and velar words and affricate sentences. Other comparisons of closure pattern, gap size, diagnosis, age, nasal utterances, low pressure context utterances, and high pressure utterances to revision rate resulted in no significant relationship. Post-operative results were not analyzed. When high nasometric values for oral word and sentence productions are noted pre-operatively, the likelihood of a revision surgery is increased. Nasometry can aid surgeons and Speech-Language Pathologists with preoperative patient counseling.
    • The relationship between readers' prior knowledge and comprehension of expository text.

      Kelly, Erin M. (2014)
      The Common Core Standards (CCSS) (Common, 2012) require students to read complex expository texts. One skill for increasing comprehension is activation of prior knowledge (Harvey & Goudvis, 2007). Having a greater understanding of how important prior knowledge is for readers’ comprehension of expository texts, of how to help students “activate” their own prior knowledge, and of how to help students build prior knowledge when theirs is lacking will add to a teacher’s collection of “tools” for assisting students to develop their skills for reading challenging and complex expository texts. This problem of teacher understanding and the role of prior knowledge has been addressed in this thesis by asking the question, what is the relationship between readers’ prior knowledge and comprehension of expository texts? The most appropriate way to address the question of this relationship has been to conduct an extensive literature review, synthesize the findings, and disseminate the results to teachers through some form of professional development. This research synthesis has determined that prior knowledge appears to have a more significant role in text comprehension than does text complexity. Further results are that prior knowledge appears to have four distinct forms: the most common being content knowledge (also called domain knowledge, domain-specific knowledge and subject knowledge), followed by vocabulary knowledge, reading strategy knowledge, and structural (or text-structure) knowledge. Each form has its specific impact on reader comprehension and an impact when used in combination with other forms. Results also indicate that students’ age and topic interest play a role in use of prior knowledge for comprehension. Overall, results show that for most readers, the combination of readers’ prior knowledge of content knowledge and text structure knowledge positively impacts comprehension of science, animal-topic, social studies, and general topic expository texts.
    • The relationship between self-concept and academic achievement.

      Alrehaili, Naseebah (2015)
      This study focuses on the relationship between academic achievement and self-concept in students with learning disabilities attending an elementary school in Western Saudi Arabia. It is an attempt to answer the research question, "What is the relationship between self-concept and academic achievement in Saudi girls age 8-10 with learning disabilities?" The previous studies suggest that because of the cognitive challenges that students with learning disabilities have, it is understandable if they have negative academic self-concept. The participants of this study were six elementary students with learning disabilities and a control group of 12 students without learning disabilities. Students' self-concept data was collected using the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale™, Second Edition (TSCS™:2), which measures self-concept in six content domains: Physical, moral, personal, family, social, academic. A measure of students' academic achievement was collected as well by examining students' final school marks. The findings suggest that academic self-concept is affected by learning disability status, but not general self-concept, which is a similar finding with Al Zyoudi (2010) study, and confirms, as Zeleke (2004) pointed out, that general self-concept is less understood as a factor to academic success than academic self-concept is.
    • The relationship between using technology classroom and the Social Studies teachers’ attitudes in Saudi Arabia.

      Alqhtani, Ebtssam (2015)
      Technology is an ever-changing tool for educators. This Masters project was designed to clarify if there are relationships between social studies teachers’ attitudes about technology and about using it in their classrooms. Findings suggest that the teachers’ gender, years of experience in teaching, and levels of education have an influence on their attitudes about using technology in the classroom. A questionnaire designed to measure teacher’s attitudes and practices was developed via the online tool Survey Monkey®. In addition, this research found that the gender did not impact attitudes about using technology in the classroom. Years of teaching experience was slightly related to teachers’ attitudes about technology, and there was a moderate correlation between classroom technology use and teachers’ attitudes about using technology. In addition, teachers with higher levels of education had more favorable attitudes about using technology in the classroom.
    • Response Cards.

      Hubert, Heidi L. (2014)
      On task behavior, assessment scores and students participation levels were examined in this project. 20, 2nd grade students, 16 Female, 4 male, 18 of which were Caucasians, and 2 were African Americans students were used for this study. Response cards were used during mathematic lessons on time for 10 days, using an A – B - A – B system. An observation checklist, frequent assessments and a student survey was used to collect data. Overall, the students on task behaviors, assessment scores and students participation levels increased because they enjoyed using response cards and found them helpful.