• Perceptions of Social Studies Teacher Roles in Literacy Instruction

      Hubbard, Justin (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      Research has found that Social Studies content teachers struggle implementing literacy into their content area. This study focused on the question, what are Secondary Social Studies teachers perceptions of their role in literacy instruction? The principal investigator of this study interviewed two experienced Secondary Social Studies teachers on their perceptions and implementation of literacy in the Social Studies content area. It was found by these interviews that these participants had been using higher level literacy instruction techniques as part of their daily instruction in the content area and that they perceive literacy instruction as the responsibility of the Social Studies teacher not only for the benefit of literacy ability, but for Social Studies content knowledge as well.
    • The perfect review session.

      Spry, Nicholas J. (2013-01-24)
      This study examined the effectiveness of four types of review sessions given the day before a unit exam. Over a three week period, four Algebra 1 classes were taught the same unit by the principal investigator. At the end of the unit, each class was given a pre-test to gather base scores. Next, each class was given a different type of review lesson the day before their unit exams. The four review lessons include; a teacher-led review with short practice quiz, a review worksheet completed in groups, a review game, and an individual practice exam with answer key given afterward. Unit exams were administered the day following the review day and were analyzed based on students growth from the pre-test scores to the unit exam scores. Results favored practice exams as the most effective review method, followed by a group-based worksheet and a review game, with teacher-led instruction with a practice quiz being the least effective.
    • Periods of United States Migration.

      Newell, Patrick Thomas (2013-01-25)
      No author abstract.
    • The perspective of students and faculty members regarding the use of technology in a constructivist learning environment

      Alharbi, Abeer (2015)
      The purpose of this study was to explore the different perspectives of students and faculty members of an all female, Saudi Arabian university art department regarding the use of technology in a constructivist-learning environment. This mixed method research study collected quantitative data from a survey of 70 faculty members and 70 students, and qualitative data from in-depth structured qualitative interviews of three faculty and three students. Results showed that both faculty and students had mostly positive attitudes towards using technology in the art curriculum, and were generally open towards receiving training and instructing into how to incorporate it into a constructivist learning environment, but did not feel that the technology used in Art classrooms was being utilized to its full potential. Respondents also stated that they wished that future training, guidelines and other supports be put in place to increase faculty and students knowledge of how to best use technology to enhance learning outcomes. The result of this study suggest that university faculty, administration, and researchers should consider technology-facilitated constructivist learning environments as a topic of future study and a great potential investment into the academic success and satisfaction of students.
    • Perspectives on heritage language and the U.S. and student language choices

      Papadimatos, Alexa (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      The purpose of this study was to examine what specific factors influence student linguistic choices and how those choices affect the rate of heritage/home language attrition and its subsequent maintenance. A qualitative research design consisting of interviews was used to examine how heritage language speaking college students felt about their heritage language proficiency, family connections and experiences in American public schools. The languages reflected in this research include Spanish, Haitian Creole, Romanian and Italian. The participants in this study are all students of a four-year comprehensive public university, but have grown up in areas all across New York state. The key objective for this research was to explore how the perceived attitudes of teachers, parents and members from the same minority language groups as the participants, affected the participants' own view of their home language and if the participants felt that maintaining their home languages was important. All of the participants noted that maintaining their heritage/ home language was an integral part in their success in social, economic and political contexts. This research concludes with recommendations on how school administrations and individual school teachers can come to better serve their heritage language speaking students, by checking their own assumptions about minority language communities. [from author's abstract]
    • Photomorphogenic effects of UV-B radiation and a-Tocopherol on Brassica rapa.

      Wong, Tiffany (2014)
      UV-B radiation may cause morphological, physiological, and genetic damage to living organisms. Prolonged exposure to UV-B radiation causes photooxidative damage to DNA and proteins. Sessile organisms, such as plants, are unable to escape relentless UV-B exposure. However, plants can protect themselves from UV-B by the production of antioxidants. Plants also respond to UV-B irradiance by inhibiting hypocotyl elongation, reducing number of leaves and developing fewer flowers. In this study, Brassica rapa was subjected to varying degrees of UV-B radiation and treated with a lipid-soluble antioxidant, α-tocopherol. Harmful reactive oxygen species, formed by UV-B radiation, may be stabilized by α-tocopherol. The hypothesis are that B. rapa will develop differently under UV-B treatment and B. rapa treated with UV-B and α-tocopherol will develop differently compared to B. rapa exposed to UV-B without α-tocopherol. In the experiment, two strains (RBr – standard rapid-cycling and ygr – yellow-green mutation) of B. rapa received no UV-B, ambient UV-B, or high UV-B exposure. Plants received a treatment of either α-tocopherol or water. UV-B fluorescent light (280-320 nm) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) sources were suspended above the plants. Measurements were taken to determine chlorophyll content, stem height, leaf surface area, and total biomass. Brassica rapa was found to be susceptible to UV-B radiation which resulted in shortened height, and fewer leaves and flowers. Ygr that received α-tocopherol produced more flowers under ambient UV-B exposure when compared to RBr. The external application of α-tocopherol on plants may have promoted repair mechanisms in the presence of UV-B radiation.
    • A planned approach to increase first grade parents' knowledge of curricular objectives.

      Danforth, Audra (30/10/2013)
      This empirical study investigated the use of a weekly planned approach to parent involvement with a focus on curriculum and weekly objectives in order to improve student achievement. The 15 participants were in first grade ranging from ages 6-7, from a small city school district in Western New York. The school is culturally diverse and has a free and reduced lunch rate of 80%. This study used a weekly newsletter, developed by the teacher and classroom students to help improve student grades through parental involvement. The empirical study collected data on student assessment results as well as through a parent survey. The limitations of this study were the amount of time allotted for the study, which was six weeks and the fact that some students were receiving Academic Intervention Services (AIS) which may have influenced the improved scores as opposed to the targeted increase in parental involvement. After research was conducted and collected, it was indicated that the students had improved test scores. The student's test scores showed that the newsletters were effective.
    • Planning effective inclusive instruction : utilizing three evidence based practices in inclusive classrooms.

      Thomas, Allen L. (16/10/2012)
      Due to steady increases in students being diagnosed with disabilities, schools have transitioned to becoming more inclusive. As a result, children with disabilities are receiving more instruction within the general education setting as to comply with federal mandates such as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and No Child Left Behind (NCLB). For that reason, there is a high demand for teachers to both demonstrate and obtain knowledge pertaining to evidence-based intervention strategies and methodologies in order to instruct these disabled students alongside their non-disabled peers. Current research reveals that in-service teachers possess insufficient training and a lack of familiarity with effective evidence based practices that can be utilized in an inclusive setting. Teachers cannot utilize instructional practices they do not know, students cannot benefit from educational practices they do not experience, and schools have not developed a system in which all teachers learn to make good use of evidence-based practices that enhance the quality of education for all students. Therefore the purpose of this professional development project is to provide teachers with knowledge and training in the use of three evidence based practices specifically: guided notes, peer tutoring, and response cards in order to facilitate academic success in an inclusive setting.
    • Policy versus practice.

      deGuehery, Alanah S. (2014)
      The number of English language learners (ELLs) in American schools has increased dramatically (Hardin, Roach- Scott, & Peisner-Feinberg, 2007; Schon, Shaftel, & Markham, 2008; Sullivan, 2011; Woolley, 2008). That increase has caused many challenges for educators working with culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) students (Hardin et al., 2007; Hardin et al. 2009; Woolley, 2010). The challenges educators face are due in part to cultural and linguistic differences, and are especially apparent in evaluating and determining special education eligibility, and providing educational services to ELLs (Hardin et al., 2007). Further, educators may not be adequately trained to work with ELLs, and the assessments and policies used for special education identification of ELLs may not be valid. As a result, there is a disproportionate representation of ELLs in special education (Artiles et al. 2005; Estrem & Zhang, 2010; Linn & Hemmer, 2011 ; MacSwan & Rolstad, 2006; Sullivan, 2011). The goal of this study was to find out what processes teachers use to identify students for special education, as aligned with special education law mandates. An online survey asking about identification procedures was used to collect information from teachers. Results indicate that the participants did have professional development training in multicultural teaching; however, they would benefit from more training on how to identify students for special education and how to identify certain disabilities. Participants also received valuable information from parents, and indicated the use of multiple strategies to help parents understand evaluation results, which is consistent with educational law.
    • The positives about negatives : a study of errors and misconceptions with integer operations in adult education.

      Sadler, Joshua T. (2013-01-17)
      In this experiment two classes received instruction on integer operations. The first received instruction with the use of technology and the second class was instructed through a traditional approach. The study progressed over a one week span where students began with a five question survey to assess previous knowledge of positive and negative numbers. Following the survey, four days of instruction were provided discussing each operation as its own lesson. After the instruction, students were given a twenty question multiple choice exam that was graded for correctness. Data from the post assessment was also collected to determine if there were any persistent errors. The hypothesis pertaining to the technology enhanced teaching style out performing the traditional teaching style demonstrates there was not enough evidence, as it is clear that there is no definitive difference when comparing mean scores and p-values.
    • Practicing continuity of education in early childcare.

      Bridge, Jessica M. (2015)
      This narrative explored a director’s and six caregivers’ perspectives on looping or continuity of education with young children. This study sought to answer the following questions: What perspectives do caregivers have on looping and its’ benefits? What perspective does the center’s director have on looping and its’ benefits? What are the relationships like between the caregivers and children in a looping classroom? The purpose of this research study was to 1.) explore how teachers and a supervisor describe their perspectives on looping with children through an early childcare center in a rural town of Western New York; 2.) explore how looping impacts children academically, socially, emotionally, physically, and linguistically. Qualitative data were collected through non-participant observations and interviews. Results revealed positive perspectives on the practice of looping for early childcare education. Participants expressed their joy of working closely with the children at the center for three consecutive years. The study concludes with considerations for the future to compare this childcare center with a non-looping early childhood childcare center in hopes to discover which type of early childcare education would be possibly considered as best practice.
    • Professional development for elementary teachers use of group contingencies for behavior management.

      Addison, Danelle (27/10/2012)
      Behavior management in the classroom is an important aspect and pressing issue for teachers. When children are disruptive in the classroom, it is not only a problem for their peers and teacher, but it is the disruptive child who is affected the most, academically and socially. Due to increasing behavior problems in the classroom, teachers need to be better at management [even]. This paper looks at three different types of group-oriented contingencies which are known as independent group-oriented contingencies, dependent group-oriented contingencies and interdependent group-oriented contingencies. There has been much research conducted on group contingencies with the use of randomized reinforcers aimed at decreasing inappropriate behaviors. Of these group-oriented contingency interventions, interdependent group contingencies were found to be utilized more in a classroom environment. This project presents a review of the literature on the use of randomized reinforcers, also referred to mystery motivators in this paper, with the group contingencies and their effectiveness. These interventions have been proven to be practical, efficient and economical to use for teachers addressing a target behavior. The focus of this project is a professional development plan for teachers interested in using group contingencies with randomized reinforcers in their classrooms.
    • A professional development for teachers of English Learners in the Science classroom

      Dutton, Laurie (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-12)
      There was a growing population of English Language Learners (ELLs) in the United States. Addressing the needs of these students, and determining what practices are most effective in aiding their acquisition of their target language was beneficial in nurturing these students to becoming career and college ready. In lieu of the New York State adoption of theThere was a growing population of English Language Learners (ELLs) in the United States. Addressing the needs of these students, and determining what practices are most effective in aiding their acquisition of their target language was beneficial in nurturing these students to becoming career and college ready. In lieu of the New York State adoption of the New York State Science Learning Standards there was a need for ENL teachers and any teacher that has English Language Learners in their class to be supported in providing Science learning as part of instruction. The purpose of this curriculum project was to introduce ENL teachers to new science content standards and explore English and home language use in a science environment. The content and language used to access science is examined through a place-based perspective. As a product, this curriculum product will produce a professional development module using Google Classroom. there was a need for ENL teachers and any teacher that has English Language Learners in their class to be supported in providing Science learning as part of instruction. The purpose of this curriculum project was to introduce ENL teachers to new science content standards and explore English and home language use in a science environment. The content and language used to access science is examined through a place-based perspective. As a product, this curriculum product will produce a professional development module using Google Classroom.[from author's abstract]
    • Professional development materials for school bus safety with special considerations for English Language Learners (ELLs) and students with special needs.

      Kahn, Judy B. (2015)
      This curriculum project brings together two important topics: School bus safety and meeting the needs of English Language Learners (ELLs). ELLs are students whose native language is not English and who are in the process of becoming proficient in English (Wright, 2010). The problem this work addressed is ELLs may not receive equal access to school bus safety information since it is not delivered in a language that they can understand. The purpose of this project was to create Professional Development materials for school principals and bus drivers to help them work together in conducting school bus safety drills throughout the school year, in a district with a large population of ELLs. The district also transports many students with special needs, so considerations for these students were addressed as well. This workshop addressed the safety aspects of safely loading and unloading, crossing the road, waiting for the bus, emergency situations, and interactions with parents. The author reviewed court cases and state and federal legislation requiring ELLs and students with special needs to receive equal access to the information that their peers receive, in addition to New York State Commissioner’s Regulations and school bus driver training materials. These documents were reviewed to demonstrate a need for access to relevant information for school personnel and students. It is hoped that school bus safety training for ELLs and students with special needs will be improved, with increased knowledge on the best practices for delivering this information to these students.
    • Professional development plan for cooperative teaching.

      Bestine, Lauren L. (31/10/2013)
      Many schools have been faced with the challenge of meeting the needs of its diverse learners. Many districts have turned to co-teaching as the answer to the question of how to meet the needs of all students. The review of the literature follows the history of special education from self-contained all the way to inclusion, touching on the laws that have been passed to help assure that each student is guaranteed access to the least restrictive environment possible. Co-teaching is shown as an effective approach to meet the needs of the students. Five approaches have been thoroughly explained and then a full and complete professional development program has been designed to be implemented in a rural school district in western New York.
    • Professors' and students' perceptions towards English writing challenges at Qassim University of Saudi Arabia

      Almuhailib, Badar (2016-05)
      This study investigated professors’ and students’ perceptions toward writing difficulties that Arab English learners would encounter when writing in English. This study applied to students who study in the English department at Qassim University (QU), Saudi Arabia. A survey was distributed to 86 students studying in the English Department in QU. Three of English language professors teaching in the same Department at QU were asked about their beliefs of writing challenges that many students face. The results showed that professors and students held different perceptions toward English writing difficulties that were found reported by the two surveys. Hence, professors should take into consideration the students’ perceptions in order to build instructions and curriculum accordingly.
    • A Project-Based Learning 6th Grade Science Unit Aligned to the Next Generation Science Standard

      Drummond, Kelsey (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      Project-Based Learning (PBL) has become a prevalent term in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematic (STEM) classrooms. Teachers are introducing hands on and student-centered learning into their science classrooms to create a different atmosphere. By using PBL in the classroom environment for consecutive years of education, a gain in academic development and social skills are created. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are used heavily throughout K-12th grade as the science curriculum. With limited resources provided for middle school science teachers, this PBL unit will focus on how 6th grade students can design a model to minimize water and land pollution in the environment around their school community. Background knowledge on pollution and human impact on the environment throughout the world will help student succeed during this unit. Guest speakers and field trips to their community water source and surrounding land will help influence students design model. This unit can be modified for 7th or 8th grade science teachers teaching the same curriculum.
    • Pyruvate Kinase regulates Gurken translation by reduced TOR activity in Drosophila Melanogaster.

      Blundon, Malachi Andrew (2013-01-23)
      Gurken (Grk) expression is required to specify the polarity of the developing oocyte during Drosophila oogenesis. Proper localization and translation of grk transcripts is required to achieve proper axis specification. Gkr translation initiation has been shown to be cap-dependent and require the activity of the DEAD-box RNA helicase, Vasa. Vasa activity can be repressed by the ATR/Chk2-dependent meiotic checkpoint when DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) persist in meiosis. Unrepaired DSBs in oocyte development of spindle-class mutants activate this checkpoint and result in inefficient grk translation and loss of dorsal fates. This inefficient grk translation is thought to be related to reduced Vasa activity. In a screen for suppressors of the ventralized eggshell phenotype seen in spindle-BBU mutants, we identified a mutation in the PyK gene. We show that PyK mutations suppress the eggshell phenotype independent of the DSB repair delay and Vasa phosphorylation seen in spn-B mutants. This suggests that the eggshell phenotype is corrected by overcoming the translational block of grk transcripts seen in spindle mutants. PyK has been identified as a member of the TOR signaling pathway. Direct inhibition of the TOR kinase with rapamyacin suppresses the ventralized eggshell phenotype in spn-B mutant females. PyK modulates TOR kinase activity through the TSC1/2 heterodimer. During dietary starvation, TOR activity promotes capdependent translation by restraining the activity of the translation inhibitor eIF4E binding protein (4EBP). We hypothesize that reduced TOR activity promotes grk translation independent of the ATR/Chk2 meiotic checkpoint pathway. Recent data indicates that this may be achieved by way of IRES-dependent translation initiation of grk when TOR activity is low. This discovery suggests flies are able to maintain the translation of developmentally important transcripts such as grk during periods of nutrient limitation.
    • P² [:] Preference and Performance.

      Bockhahn, Kristi Jo (2013-01-17)
      No author abstract.
    • Re-Visionist Women Writers.

      Tosun, Tulin Ece (2013-01-28)
      No author abstract.