• The effects of the fan-n-pick cooperative learning strategy on young Saudi students

      Al Matrafi, Sameha (2016-03)
      Cooperative learning allows students to share ideas, ask questions and give feedback. The “Fan-N-Pick” strategy is a cooperative learning strategy developed by Spencer Kagan. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of using the Fan-N-Pick cooperative learning strategy with young Saudi girls, aged 6-7, in science class to improve performance and participation. The research was conducted over a period of two weeks in an elementary school in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The participants in this study were 48 female students from two science classes in the first grade. One class was the experimental group, and the other was the control group. The experimental group was taught by using the Fan-N-Pick cooperative learning strategy while the control group was taught by using a traditional, lecture method. The researcher compared the posttest scores and students' participation rates, as measured by observations during four lessons, between the control group and the experimental group. The results of this study showed significant improvement of students’ performance and participation through using the cooperative learning Fan-N-Pick strategy.
    • The effects of the Good Behavior Game on first grade students' behaviors.

      Bartela, Ashley L. (2015)
      The positive reinforcement contingencies, particularly the Good Behavior Game, have been used by teachers to improve behaviors among students within the classroom. Prior research suggests that the Good Behavior Game saves educators time in constantly administering consequences to students, and promotes both positive social behaviors and academic performance among students involved simultaneously (Tankersley, 1995). This quantitative study investigated the effectiveness of the positive reinforcement contingency, the Good Behavior Game on increasing on-task behavior and decreasing disruptive behaviors among a group of five first grade students (three girls and two boys) enrolled in an Academic Intervention Services (AIS) classroom. The researcher collected data through an ABA design, which spanned over a cumulative period of four weeks. Findings demonstrated a direct correlation between the implementation of the Good Behavior Game and on-task behaviors, as well as a significant decrease in disruptive behaviors among each of the five first grade students involved in the study.
    • Effects of the Literature Circle Strategy on participation of English Language Learners.

      Balone, Erika M. (2015)
      A common issue in education classes comprised of English language learners is a lack of participation in the classroom. The purpose of this research was to determine if the use of literature circles would have an impact on the number of times students raised their hands to participate during a book discussion. The participants were 4th grade students in two ELA classrooms within an urban elementary school located in western New York. This study included six lessons based on chapters in a book, three of which utilized the literature circle strategy, and three that did not. The results of this study were measured based on the number of times students participated by raising their hand during the discussions to see if students participation increased when using the literature circle strategy. Results determined that in this study, participation was positively affected by the use of literature circles.
    • The effects of the mystery motivator game on the organizational skills of 5th and 6th grade students.

      Phillips, Bridgett A. (2013)
      Many students fail to succeed in school because of poor organizational skills. These particular skill deficits often result in poorer academic performance, inconsistent work efforts, lack of motivation, and sometimes referral to remedial and special education programs. The present study examined the effects of an intervention package called the Mystery Motivator Game on two groups of 5th and 6th graders’ daily organizational behaviors. The game which consisted of an interdependent group contingency (i.e., class must demonstrate 90% of selected organizational behaviors to earn rewards) and mystery motivators (i.e., unknown rewarding contained in highly decorated and sealed envelopes displayed prominently in class) was use to improve three target behaviors: (a) in seat before bell, (b) all necessary class materials, and (c) successful completion on bell ringer activities (i.e., content-related tasks to be completed independently prior to formal instruction). Using an A-B-A-B withdrawal of treatment design, no noticeable improvements were associated with the use of the Mystery Motivator Game. These findings were inconsistent with prior research on group contingencies and mystery motivators and the investigator’s hypothesis. Possible explanations for a failure to replicate are offered and implications for practice are discussed.
    • The effects of the Radical Raceway on homework completion and accuracy in a high-school social studies class.

      Houser, Derek (12/11/2013)
      Homework is an educational strategy used to improve student understanding of content taught in class. It provides a means for students to further their knowledge through additional, independent practice. Many studies have shown that completing homework correctly has a positive effect on student learning. The problem is that large numbers of students in many classes are not doing their homework and many of those who do complete it incorrectly. The present study showed how the Radical Raceway a intervention package containing group contingencies, small competing teams, public posting, and mystery motivators, was used to improve the homework completion and accuracy rates for a 9th grade Global Studies classroom. The Radical Raceway produced immediate and sustained positive results that improved students’ social studies homework grades by two to three letter grades. Intervention effects were replicated across subsequent experimental phases and the teachers and pupils rated intervention goals, procedures, and outcomes quite favorably. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
    • The effects of the Three Jars Game on 9th grade students' academic productivity and social interactions in Spanish II class.

      Palmer, Kelly (12/11/2013)
      Homework is an educational strategy used to improve student understanding of content taught in class. It provides a means for students to further their knowledge through additional, independent practice. Many studies have shown that completing homework correctly has a positive effect on student learning. The problem is that large numbers of students in many classes are not doing their homework and many of those who do complete it incorrectly. The present study showed how the Three Jars intervention package containing group contingencies, small competing teams, and mystery motivators, was used to improve the homework completion, homework accuracy, and decrease negative social behavior rates for a 9th grade Spanish classroom. The Three Jars produced immediate and sustained positive results that improved students’ Spanish homework grades. Intervention effects were replicated across subsequent experimental phases and the teachers and pupils rated intervention goals, procedures, and outcomes quite favorably. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
    • The effects of the three jars game on the academic performance of a 5th grade inclusion class.

      Velazquez, Nicole (28/02/2014)
      Homework is used to reinforce concepts and skills taught in class and to promote student mastery through practice. It has a long history of positive effects on academic achievement across grade levels, content areas, and student abilities. Unfortunately, many pupils fail to complete homework and many others perform poorly when they do so. Teachers need effective, efficient, and socially acceptable strategies for getting all of their students to do well on homework assignments. The present study examined the effect of the Three Jars game, a combination of group contingencies with randomized components and mystery motivators, on the homework completion and accuracy of an inclusive 5th grade math class. The game produced immediate and substantive improvements in both pupils’ completion and accuracy rates. Teachers and students rated the intervention very positively and suggested that it should be used more frequently in school. Limitations and directions for future research and practice are offered.
    • The effects of the Tree Jars Intervention on the homework completion and accuracy of middle school mathematics students.

      Landy, Kaitlin (12/11/2013)
      Homework is a teaching strategy that is used to reinforce concepts and skills taught in class and to promote student mastery through practice. It has strong positive effects on academic achievement across grade levels, content areas, and student abilities. To maximize academic learning in mathematics, completion and accuracy of math homework should be addressed. The present study examines the efficacy of the three jars game, a combination of group contingencies with randomized components and mystery motivators, on the homework completion and accuracy of an inclusive 7th grade math class. The three jars game produced immediate and substantive improvements in both pupils’ completion and accuracy rates. Teachers and students rated the intervention very positively and suggested that it should be used more frequently in school. Limitations are delineated and future directions for research and practice in this area are provided.
    • The effects of Think-Aloud strategy to improve reading comprehension of 6th grade students in Saudi Arabia.

      Alqahtani, Mona Ali (2015)
      The purpose of this research project is to investigate the effects of the Think Aloud strategy on the abilities of 6th grade Saudi Arabian students in reading comprehension. The Think Aloud strategy is a learning method whereby students voice loudly their inner thoughts as they read. The specific research question answered by this study is: what are the effects of the Think Aloud strategy on the 6th grade students’ comprehension in Saudi Arabia? A significant number of students fail to achieve reading comprehension in the country due to the ineffectiveness of the traditional methods. Twenty 6th grade students participated in this quantitative research study. Students in the experimental group, using the Think Aloud strategy consistently scored higher grades compared to the students in the control group taught by traditional methods of reading. In conclusion, the Think Aloud strategy is instrumental in improving reading comprehension and should be considered a potentially valuable alternative strategy to the traditional method of reading in Saudi Arabia.
    • The effects of Three Jars and Mystery motivators on homework completion and accuracy in a 2nd grade classroom.

      Kestner, Christina (12/11/2013)
      Homework is a strategy used by teachers to promote the understanding of content and student mastery through practice. Academic benefits of homework include retention of new knowledge and better understanding of class material. Homework completion and accuracy are essential for student success in school. However, research shows students may lack self discipline and the academic skills required to complete homework assignments (Rathvon, 1999). Therefore, classroom teachers need effective, efficient and socially acceptable interventions to improve homework performance among their students. The present study examined the effects of the three jars intervention on homework completion and accuracy in a 2nd grade general education classroom. The three jars game produced immediate and noticeable improvements in pupils' completion and accuracy over teacher-led instruction. Pupils rated intervention goals, procedures, and outcomes quite favorably and the teachers found it to be effective and efficient. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
    • The effects of Three Jars on the disruptive behavior of a secondary English Language Arts (ELA) class.

      Wesley, Abigail (16/08/2013)
      A considerable amount of evidence suggests that disruptive classroom behavior interferes with the teaching and learning process. In the current situation, a novice teacher was challenged by high rates of disruptive behavior during her 9th grade self-contained English Language Arts (ELA) class. In response she examined the effects of three jars, an intervention package consisting sting of group contingencies with randomized components, on three specific disruptive behaviors (i.e., talk outs, out of seat, and noncompliance). Results indicated that the three jars intervention produced immediate and noticeable decreases in her students’ disruptive behaviors. In fact, overall disruption dropped by approximately 67% when the intervention was in effect. additional analyzes suggested that the intervention had the most noticeable impact on student talk outs. In addition, consumer satisfaction data indicated that students found three jars to be socially acceptable for the most part, although some questions were raised about its fairness and impact on peer relationships. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
    • The effects of using interactive laboratory simulation in teaching Biology

      Almutrafi, Hannan (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-05)
      This study was designed to investigate interactive simulation in a high school biology class with a focus on whether interactive simulation technology had an effect on academic achievement, as measured by standardized assessment scores. Also, the study included a survey to measure by standardized assessment scores. [from author's abstract]
    • The effects of using various grouping techniques for reading instruction with a class of diverse students.

      Cronin, Jennifer L. (13/11/2012)
      This Master’s Thesis Project focused on using various grouping techniques for reading instruction with a class of diverse students. The topic led to a professional development experience which aimed to provide elementary teachers with best practices for grouping students during reading. It was concluded after research that students benefited most from flexible, dynamic grouping formats. The professional development consisted of a two-hour workshop that provided teachers with knowledge of the Daily 5 and Literacy Café programs for grouping students during reading workshop. There was also an ongoing experience that involved constant observations and teacher reflection, along with collaborative mentor group meetings that continue throughout the entire school year.
    • The effects of visual stimulation on the mathematics performance of children in second grade with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

      Britt, Alicia K. (2014)
      Students in Elementary schools may learn differently than older students. Manipulatives used in the second grade classroom can benefit student learning. Students of all learning abilities can benefit from the use of manipulatives in the classroom. All students in elementary schools can learn differently and the way they are taught can help them in their education. Educators should use the best way of instruction to benefit their students. This study looks at the effects on student learning with the use of manipulatives in a second grade classroom. The students are of different levels of learning abilities.
    • The effects of visuals when teaching new English vocabulary to kindergarten English Language Learners.

      Reale, Lauren (2014)
      This study examines the effects of visuals with kindergarten ELL (English Language Learner) students when learning new English vocabulary words. Those who took part in this study were 10 ELL students in 2 different schools who all speak Spanish as a first language. The study took place inside the ESL classrooms the 2 schools, utilizing a pre-test and post-test, during two different sessions, with two different sets of five vocabulary words. In one school, students learned the vocabulary words with visuals while the other school did not receive the visuals. From this study, it can be seen that visuals do enhance the learning of ELL kindergarten students when learning new English vocabulary. Students who did receive the intervention of the visuals showed more increases in pre-test and post-test scores than those who did not receive the intervention of visuals.
    • Eighth graders' readings of paper and computer screen stories : a case study of one classroom.

      Habermehl, Amanda (18/10/2012)
      The purpose of this case study explored how three eighth grade students comprehended four chapters from the short story, Hooch. This study investigated how their comprehension of Hooch varied when reading from paper versus a computer screen. It also investigated how their experience with technology affected their ability to comprehend digitally-presented text. Data were collected through the number of ideas retold and how many comprehension questions were correctly answered for each chapter. In addition, the three participants were interviewed about their experience and preference of reading from paper of computer screen. Students were able to comprehend the most the most when reading a chapter from the computer. In addition, a student's experience with technology did not affect how the student comprehended a digitally presented text. Results of the study suggest that the integration of digitally-presented text into classrooms may benefit the students' ability to comprehend what they read, though future research needs to be carried out to ensure that similar results are found among a larger group of participants. Results of this study also suggest the importance of teachers providing technological experience to students in order to equip the students for the future digital world.
    • Eliminate the substitution or substitute the elimination?

      Hammond, Ricardo S. (2013-01-25)
      This research examines the different methods used for solving systems of equations, how those methods are taught, and how they can be applied to real world situations. More specifically, this research examines which of these methods student tend to favor, as well as whether or not students can properly apply the concept of systems of equations to real world situations. “It is hypothesized that high school algebra students will use substitution over elimination when solving systems of equations, and that students who have not been previously introduced to any method will naturally use “guess-and-check.” Furthermore, it is hypothesized that students’ general approach to solving systems of equations is “procedural,” causing them to score higher on algebraic-type problems than on word problems". It was determined that students who had already been instructed on solving systems of equations were likely to favor substitution over other methods. It was also concluded that students who had not yet been instructed on solving systems of equations had a tendency to favor guess-and-check over other methods. Furthermore, students performed better on the algebraic problems than the word problems. Many students approached the word problems differently than how they approached the algebraic problems. Regardless of the methods used in the algebraic problems, many students abandoned those methods when attempting the word problems.--
    • The emotional and social effects of having sibling with a disability

      Cox, Lindsey (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      The purpose of this curriculum project was to create an instructional unit emphasizing awareness, consciousness, and intentional social justice teaching; for teachers, administrators and educators to implement in their educational setting. The goal of this project was to present a a high school curriculum unit full of social justice language, literature, and suggested activities that motivate leadership development, which in turn may create welcoming educational environments for the liberation of the oppressed ones. The project encourages users to implement educational advocacy practices, diversity/pluralism, needs and educational assessments, and create space for teacher, students, and parents' relationship. It is a curriculum project reflecting community organizing leadership examples as road map for teacher/student leadership development. Effective teaching. [from abstract]
    • Engaging practices in civics education

      McNeill, Daniel (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      High school civics education is often an overlooked part of the senior high curriculum. As students transition from school to the college campuses and the workplace setting they must be prepared for the key roles and responsibilities of citizenship. Citizenship in the United States, as it is in many nations around the world, is a special privilege that requires a functioning body of citizen contribution to maintain and succeed. As part of an effort to provide a well-rounded and wholesome education to our young adults, social studies educators are charged with the responsibilities to enlighten and encourage civics and civic participation. The purpose of this study is to examine traditional and contemporary practices in civics education to bring light to the most impactful strategies and activities that promote civic engagement. An in-depth examination of literature provides a glimpse into the success and shortcomings of civics education over the course of its history. A student to teacher comparative survey study and its findings are also presented to provide a bead on two schools in rural Western New York and how both parties feel about the Participation in Government (PIG) course and what it provides to them. The results dictate relative agreement between students and educators on the content of civics education, but reveal shortcomings in the preparation of Senior students for active participation as citizens. [from abstract]
    • English language learners' perceptions of high stakes assessments and accommodations.

      Taylor, Alina A. (02/10/2012)
      English language learners (ELLs) are mandated under federal legislation to take standardized tests in mathematics, even if they arrive in the United States with limited English proficiency the day the test is given. The problem is that standardized tests, which are intended to measure knowledge and skills in a content area, really become assessments of English proficiency for ELLs. The purpose of this study was to investigate ELLs' perceptions of high-stakes assessments and the legal accommodations offered to them. The quantitative, attitudinal surveys provided information regarding students' experiences and opinions on taking the New York State Regents exam in mathematics and the accommodations they used. The researcher hypothesized that ELLs may hold negative perceptions of the New York State Regents exam in mathematics. Also, it was hypothesized that ELLs may report mixed feelings about accommodations on the exam. Data taken from the surveys were tabulated and results revealed students' mixed opinions about the exam and the accommodations they used. Participants reported the use of the following accommodations: time extension, separate location, bilingual dictionaries/glossaries, simultaneous use of English and alternative language editions, and oral translation. Overall, the present study found that high school ELLs may have negative or mixed feelings toward high stakes assessments and accommodations.