• Taking your time, or just wasting it?

      Raynor, Nick D. (2013-10-21)
      This research examines the connection between the amount of time a student takes to complete a test and the score that they receive on the test. It is hypothesized that students who take longer to complete their test will actually score lower on the test than the student that finish their tests more quickly. Furthermore, it is thought that female students will have stronger correlations between score and time than will male students. The main discovery that was made is that there was significance in the data regarding strictly time and score. It was shown that students who use less time to take their tests generally scored better than those who took longer to complete the test. However, there was no statistical significance found when breaking down the data into specific categories based on gender, grade level, age, or class.
    • Teacher and student morale and school board governance.

      Corlett, Kara M. (2015)
      School boards have been around since the 15th Century in the American Public Education System to help with the local governance of school districts. There has not been a lot of focus in research on how the governance of a school board effects the morale of teachers and students. With the increase in news media in the recent decade, there has been more attention on local governments and elected officials, such as a school board. With this increase, there has been more government scandals exposed, including those involving school board officials and school district administrators. While most of the attention has been the negative effect on the officials themselves, there has not been much attention on how the scandals affect teachers and students. The purpose of this Master’s Project was to see if a local school board scandal negatively impacted teacher and student morale at the local high school in the district. The question of the impact was researched with an online survey that was sent to high school teachers and guidance counselors. The results of the survey give new insight into teacher and student morale in public schools, when there is a lot of media focus on education today.
    • Teacher attitudes toward No Child Left Behind and part 154 in the English as a New language classroom

      Villafrank, Caroline (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-05)
      As the population of English Language Learners continues to grow, policymakers, legislators and courts alike have struggled with implementing educational policy. Virtually, since its inception, the United States has struggled with determining how to best educate its linguistically diverse students. From segregation cases in the 40s, 50s and 60s, to modern day English only movements, to present day policies such as No Child Left Behind, any educational victories that have been obtained have been intermittent and disjointed (Powers, 2014). As the United States continues to grow increasingly diverse are policymakers prepared to adequately meet the demands of educating English Language Learners? The purpose of this study is to examine how English as a New Language Teachers (ENL) in Chautauqua County New York perceive No Child Left Behind and Commissioner's Regulations Part 154 in the ENL classroom, and whether these laws have influenced their teaching. Data was obtained through face-to-face interviews, observation and recording and policy analysis. Results indicate that participants felt mostly negative towards No Child Left Behind, and viewed Part 154 favorably. Participants' negative perceptions towards No Child Left Behind did not appear to negatively affect their teaching. Implications for addressing the educational needs of ELLs and Policymaking, as well as future research are also discussed. [from author's abstract]
    • Teacher led exercise and its effect on student engagement.

      Nelson, Rhea T. (2014)
      This study’s aim was to identify whether or not teacher led exercise at the beginning of the school day had an effect on second grade students’ ability to be engaged during morning math lessons. The participants were second grade students from a rural elementary school in western New York. The study was comprised of an ABAB design and data was collected using observations and checklists. Comparisons were made between student engagement on days following exercise to engagement on days with exercise. Results were investigated based on the entire group, student gender, student education classification, and both gender and educational classification together. Results indicated that within those groups, the exercise increased student ability to remain engaged and on task throughout math lessons.
    • Teacher perception of a New English as a Foreign Language (EFL) curriculum in Saudi Arabia.

      Almalki, Mosa M. (2014)
      The purpose of this study was to explore Saudi EFL teachers’ perceptions of the quality of the new English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Flying High curriculum in selected secondary schools in the Sabia Educational Directorate. The researcher examined Saudi EFL teachers’ attitudes towards EFL, preparation programs, the quality of the new curriculum, teacher practices, and administrative support. The researcher used a 50-item survey with a five point Likert Scale. Participants were 42 Saudi EFL teachers. The findings revealed: a) Saudi EFL teachers think that English is important for academic and social purposes; and b) teachers had mixed feelings about the quality of the curriculum (Flying High), although they believed that the curriculum reflected high-quality in its layout and instructional design, yet, the results indicated that they encountered some difficulties in implementing the new methodologies and strategies; c) teachers felt moderately prepared, while some teachers thought that college courses prepared them to teach the new curriculum, others believed that college courses did not prepare them for teaching the new curriculum; d) the results of this study showed that teachers’ practices are not aligned with their beliefs about the quality of the Flying High curriculum. Moreover, the results of the study also indicated that teachers' role in the planning of the ELDP was minimal and that teachers and students were not ready for the implementation of the new reforms. Finally, the findings revealed that teachers felt they were inadequately trained on the new EFL curriculum.
    • Teacher perceptions and student attitude of IPAD integration in Middle school

      Forys, Zachary (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      This research project is designed to address the recent push for technology in 21st century education. This is done by investigating how teachers are using iPads in a 1:1 implementation setting, what professional development teachers are given for iPads, and the attitudes of students using iPads in a 1:1 setting. Participants of the study include 30 eighth grade students and 4 teachers in a rural Western New York middle school. Each participant is currently involved in a 1:1 iPad implementation in the selected school district. The researcher gathered data in the form of a student survey, teacher interviews, and classroom observations. The results of this study concluded that teachers had a positive perception of using iPads for instruction. There were many benefits to the use of the technology in a variety of ways. Students were found to have positive attitudes when it came to the use of the iPads except when it came to reading on the iPad. This research may serve as a guide to districts who currently do not have a 1:1 iPad implementation, and are currently attempting to pursue that path of instruction in their school district. [from author's abstract]
    • Teacher perceptions of evidence based practices and strategies used to assist students with learning disabilities access core curriculum

      Bromsted, Elizabeth (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      In recent years, the use of New York State Common Core Standards, Modules, and Frameworks have dictated the curriculum taught within the middle school social studies classroom where all students learn, including students with learning disabilities. This curriculum is rigorous and presents a problem for students with learning disabilities. The purpose of this research study was to understand teacher perspectives within the classroom when teaching students with learning disabilities and developing resource of useful evidence-based practices and strategies used in the classroom. Through a phenomenological qualitative design, I was able to connect with four middle school social studies teachers and interview them to gain their perspectives of the teaching methods and evidence-based practices that they have found useful in providing access to the core curriculum taught within the classroom. As a result of these interviews, I was able to identify four common themes and evidence-based practices within the interview data collected. These themes included: a) Peer-mediated instruction, b) Self-questioning and Self-reflection, c) One-on-One Teacher Student Conferencing, and d) Technology. From the participant's perspective, when they use these strategies within the classroom, students with learning disabilities are able to interact, comprehend, and develop connections with the social studies curriculum being taught within the middle school classroom. [from author's abstract]
    • Teacher success in technology integration.

      Greenan, Jessica (2015)
      The following study investigated how teachers successfully integrated technology into their classrooms by overcoming many barriers. Barriers included time, money, access, professional development, and understanding technology pedagogy. Teachers at the prekindergarten and elementary level completed a survey including multiple choice and constructed response questions. Professionals who responded to this survey used technology sometimes in their classrooms and discussed barriers they had to overcome, and are dealing with in order to successfully integrate technology. Teachers provided strategies and ideas on what they thought would be beneficial for helping the integration process. It was discovered that many teachers have not been taught ways of using technology effectively and need more professional development and guidance from administrators in order to use technology in a meaningful way. Most of these teachers dealt with issues with technology access, understanding technology pedagogy, and lack of support
    • A teacher's handbook for reducing anxiety in foreign and second language classrooms.

      Gustafson, Lacey (2015)
      Language anxiety affects a significant number of second and foreign language learners and has been shown to negatively impact student performance and language acquisition. This curriculum project addressed the specific causes of anxiety, the negative effects it can have on students' behavior and achievement, and strategies that can be utilized to reduce language anxiety in the classroom. There are many sources of language anxiety including student beliefs about the process of language learning, classroom atmosphere and procedures, the nature of interactions between the instructor and the students, language testing, and personal factors such as self-esteem. Research has shown that anxiety has negative effects on cognitive processing, and it can also inhibit the development of communicative competence by causing students to avoid interactions that would help them increase their oral skills in the target language. This handbook provides middle school, high school, and adult foreign and second language teachers with general practices they can implement to create a low-anxiety classroom atmosphere, as well as specific strategies to help students realize and overcome their anxieties about the language learning process.
    • Teachers' knowledge about bullying in elementary schools in Saudi Arabia.

      Nouran, Halah F. (2015)
      Many studies have been done about bullying in the Western world (Olweus, 1994; Attwood, 2004; Fekkes, Pijpers & Verloove-Vanhorick, 2005; Ansary, Elias, Greene, and Green, 2015). In contrast, not enough empirical studies have been done about bullying in Arabic countries (AlQahtani, 2008; Fitaihi, 2014; Alzahrani, 2012). This study aimed to identify the scope of bullying by examining how much teachers know and what types of bullying exist in Saudi elementary schools. A goal of this study was to increase Saudi teachers' awareness of bullying, help them find appropriate strategies to prevent bullying, and suggest the development of anti-bullying programs suited to Saudi Arabia. Using a convergent parallel mixed methods design (Creswell, 2013), a questionnaire was administered and follow-up interviews were conducted. The 11-item questionnaire was distributed among 100 female teachers working in five elementary schools in Jeddah. In addition, the researcher interviewed six female elementary teachers at one elementary school. Findings showed that fewer than half of teachers knew about bullying and that those who did know the word did not know how to treat students or to prevent bullying. Further, teachers do not use any type of anti-bullying program nor are they trained to handle bullying to keep the school environment safe and healthy. Implications will be discussed.
    • Teachers' perceptions of a Positive Behavior Intervention Support Program at a small rural school.

      Brushaber-Goulding, Melanie (2015)
      This study focuses on Positive Behavior Intervention Support (PBIS) and a particular implementation at a rural school district in Western New York. This study explores teachers’ perceptions of the PBIS system being implemented in the district. It focuses on time spent on PBIS duties, teachers’ opinions of the current implementation, and teachers’ views of changes in behavior due to the PBIS system. The participants in this survey were all faculty and staff at the school district, which includes grades pre-kindergarten through grade twelve, and support staff including specialty areas area teachers. The findings show teacher buy-in to the program, and opinions of success of the PBIS system.
    • Teachers' perceptions of the effects of the Common Core Standards on student academic achievement.

      Catalano, Hannah (2014)
      This project was designed to examine the how teachers feel the new Common Core State Standards were designed to integrate the requirements of high school and postsecondary education into the curriculum in order to prepare students for the educational demands of post-secondary education and the workforce by their 11th grade year. This project is an analysis of the perceptions of K-6 educators in Western New York on student academic achievement based on the implementation of Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts and Mathematics. The educators were voluntarily asked to answer simple questions based on how they feel towards the implementation of the Common Core State Standards Modules and the effects of the modules on the academic achievement of their students.
    • Teachers' perspectives of classroom management issues and strategies

      McCaw, Amanda (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      Classroom management and behavior issues are problematic and prevalent in elementary schools today. The purpose of this study was to identify the management strategies that are effective in reducing or eliminating misbehavior among elementary students. This study was conducted in a rural elementary school with 8 teachers of Grades 1-5, 6 were currently teaching in schools and 2 were retired. A review of the scholarship indicated that there is a correlation between student gender and misbehavior and grade level and misbehavior. The scholarship also revealed various contributing factors of student misbehavior, effective strategies to use when handling misbehavior, and teachers' knowledge and training associated with classroom management. Teachers in this study revealed that misbehavior occurred frequently and ranged from verbal disturbance to occasional higher-level forms of misbehavior, such as physical aggression. Along with discussing the types of misbehavior prevalent in elementary schools today, teachers mentioned effective behavior management strategies, which included individual behavior plans and an interactive program, called "Class Dojo." [from author's abstract]
    • Teachers’ perceptions of the benefits of recess on the development of elementary students.

      Jones, Marlena J. (08/01/2013)
      The primary purpose of this study was to examine teachers' perceptions of the effects of recess on elementary students‟ academic and interpersonal development. Recess duration in schools has declined drastically over the years in some schools and doesn't occur at all in others (Blatchford, 1998). Recess time is being taken away by increased demands for academic work that have resulted from new federal and state mandates for accountability. As a result recess has been used as a reward or motivator if work gets completed. Focus must be directed, however, on the broader developmental benefits that recess provides for students. Study participants included 38 elementary teachers from two school districts, one rural and the other urban, in Western New York. Teachers completed the Teachers' Perceptions of the Benefits of Recess for Elementary students Survey, a 5-point, Likert-type scale, anonymously and independently. Teacher ratings reflected the perceived importance and potential benefits of recess and also noted trends and barriers against its use in contemporary schools. Implications for research and discussion are provided.
    • Technical readiness of pre-service teachers to navigate and use technology in the modern day classroom

      Greiner, Meghan (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      The proposed study was based on college students, specifically pre-service teachers, planning to enter the educational field within five years. The study examined technical readiness of these pre-service teachers attending a rural, public university in Western New York and their attitudes toward information and communication technologies (ICT) in the classroom. The investigation sought to answer the question: do small, liberal arts state institutions of higher learning produce pre-service teachers with an adequate amount of exposure and training to navigate and use technology in the modern day classroom? The result of the study revealed a greater need for higher learning programs to implement technology tools and resources that reflect what technologies are in the field. [from author's abstract]
    • Techniques to suppress invasive Oriental Bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus) on Presque Isle State Park in Erie, Pennsylvania.

      Wooten, Jessica (2013-07-10)
      Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculatus) is a deciduous, woody vine native to Southeast Asia. Currently this invasive is considered a major threat to native forests in the eastern United States. Some characteristics associated with its’ competitive ability include shade tolerance, ability to colonize a wide range of suitable environmental conditions, and prolific seed production, viability and germination. These factors contribute to difficulties related to the suppression and containment of this species. In order to preserve native plant communities at Presque Isle State Park in Erie, PA, a total of 5 treatments, each having 4 replicates was established to test various procedures to suppress this invasive species and restore native plant communities. Two control treatments involved either making cuts of all stems at chest height and ground level (window cut) with no subsequent treatment or no action at all. Additional treatments consisted of a basal stump herbicide application of a 100% solution of either triclopyr or glyphosate to every cut stem immediately after window cuts were made. The last treatment method consisted of making window cuts followed by a foliar herbicide application 5 weeks post cut with a backpack sprayer containing a solution of 6% glyphosate and 3% triclopyr. Data analysis show that the most effective method to suppress C. orbiculatus is by making a window cut of all stems followed by a foliar herbicide application 5 weeks post cut. Plots with this treatment had significantly fewer regrowth stems and these stems had a trend towards shorter length as opposed to other treatments. This knowledge has the potential to assist not only Presque Isle State Park but many other locations afflicted with the presence of this invasive species.
    • A technology integration model for third grade English language arts curriculum.

      Goss, Aryle (19/10/2012)
      Educational technology in schools can be a forum for providing students with instruction. Through the use of educational technology, teachers are able to scaffold learning, engage students, increase participation and reach all student learning styles. The field of education has spent thousands of dollars on technology; therefore, there is a need to insure that this money has been well spent and that the technology is being used effectively. Teachers need to be provided with the proper training in order to deliver effective instruction using available educational technology. This paper is a curriculum project that focuses on integrating the effective use of technology, particularly: computers, personal response system (clickers) and SMART Boards, into a 3rd grade English Language Arts curriculum of a recently renovated urban elementary school. It also looks at professional development and the best way to educate teachers on how to effectively use the technology.
    • Trail's End Camp Varsity Program Director Manual.

      Pilgrim, Kathryn (31/10/2013)
      Summer camps provide valuable learning experiences for eleven million children and 1.2 million staff members every summer. Significant benefits for those at well-designed camps exist and begin with staff training. A staff manual geared toward the Non-Bunk Staff, who supervise the counselors and program areas, in particular the Varsity Program Director, starts communication before the staff member arrives at camp. Trail’s End Camp is a full season summer camp with the Varsity program designed to build leadership opportunities and added choices for the oldest 134 campers ages 13-16 during their final three years at camp. The author designed the lesson plans and wrote the accompanying manual after working at Trail’s End Camp for the summer to educate and provide a resource for future staff members in supervisory positions.
    • Transitions.

      Anderson, Marcus B. (2014)
      This empirical research thesis examines how adolescents perceive their out-of-school literacies and literacy skills, and how they see themselves using or not using these skills within their current and future school work. With a sample of two participants from a rural high school in Chautauqua County, this study uses a qualitative methodology to collect data from researcher interviews and field notes. Descriptive interview data analysis reveals that adolescents instead of making connections between outside school literacies and in-school literacies appear to use the school model of literacy skills to determine out-of-school literacy skills, rather than have the out-of-school model of literacy skills to determine out-of-school literacy skills, rather than have the out-of-school literacy activities produce their own model of literacy skills. Moreover, analysis indicates that these adolescents lack meta-cognition or metalinguistic knowledge about literacy skills and how they are transferable between various social groups or settings. Instead findings indicate a disconnect between adolescents’ out- of- school literacies and literacy skills as the adolescents attempt to apply school-based literacy concepts to non-school literacy events instead of recognizing skills as being not tied to or limited to school class work. More metacognitive metalinquistic awareness may help students to recognize and transfer literacy skills across reading tasks and reading activities.
    • Translanguaging and emerging Bilingual's academic self-efficacy in Math and ELA

      Megan, Kane (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      The population of Emergent Bilinguals (EB) in schools continues to rise annually in the United States (García et al., 2008) and with this consistent increase comes the question of how to best educate these students. Currently EBs are reporting lower levels of academic self-efficacy than their native English speaking peers (LeClair et al., 2009), which can lead to lowered academic performance (Bandura, 1993; Fan et al., 2012; Raoofi et al., 2012). Translanguaging is a revolutionary concept that rejects the classic perception of languages as separate entities within the brain. Instead, TLG views a person's multiple languages as part of one united linguistic code (Celic & Seltzer, 2012; Otheguy et al., 2015; Velasco & García, 2013). The purpose of this study was to determine the level of academic self-efficacy in math and ELA of EBs enrolled in a bilingual program that uses translanguaging in class. Furthermore, this study investigated if there was a difference in the academic self-efficacy of EBs who use translanguaging in class and EBs who do not. The results indicated that EBs who use translanguaging in class have a high level of academic self-efficacy in math and ELA. This group of participants reported slightly higher academic self-efficacy than the participant group that does not use translanguaging. However, the results of a t-test found this difference to be statistically insignificant. The results of this study were intended to add to the small body of literature on the academic self-efficacy of EBs to inform best practices for this population of learners. [from abstract]