• Re-Visionist Women Writers.

      Tosun, Tulin Ece (2013-01-28)
      No author abstract.
    • Readability of the common core standards 11-CCR text exemplars : a text sequence reference guide.

      Carapella, Jenell A. (10/01/2013)
      For a smooth transition, secondary students must be equipped with the skills to navigate and comprehend texts associated with college and career readiness. Educators are concerned that a gap in text complexity may cause some students’ lack in readiness. Although many factors play a part in students’ comprehension of a text (e.g. readability, the purpose for reading, and motivation), readability statistics may predict comprehensibility. This research used the Flesch-Kincaid and SMOG readability formulas to evaluate the readability grade levels of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) 11-CCR text exemplars. Results indicate that CCSS texts were, on average, within the expected grade level band, informational texts are more complex than literary texts, and the Flesch-Kincaid readability formula evaluates the texts as less complex, on average, than the SMOG formula. The results informed the development of the Text Sequence Reference guide that rank orders all 34 CCSS 11-CCR grade level texts according to their relative complexity. This reference guide may prove useful when developing an English Language Arts curriculum that aligns with the new standards.
    • Readability of the New York State Regents exam in United States history and government.

      Morton, Daniel E. (2015)
      This study investigated the readability of the multiple-choice section on the New York State Regents Exam in United States History and Government. Every June Regents Exam, from 2014-1990, was analyzed for readability. The Homan, Hewitt, & Linder (1994) formula was utilized because this formula measures grade level readability for multiple-choice questions. Readability was determined by randomly selecting three multiple-choice questions from each exam to analyze. Readability was calculated for each question and averaged to determine the mean score for each exam. This study revealed that over time the NYS Regent Exam in United States History and Government has become easier to read. There are far-reaching implications with regard to teacher evaluations and test reliability and validity, as a result of this study.
    • Reading anxiety among Arabic speaking students.

      Kress, Michelle T. (2015)
      Reading anxiety can become a great hindrance to an Arabic speaking student’s language acquisition. The anxiety acts as a barrier to the reading process making it difficult for the student to be able to decode or interact with the text (Krashen, 1983). There is still a limited amount of research with Arabic student participants and focus has been mostly given to other areas of language anxiety (Ahmad et al., 2013; Horwitz, 2010; Horwitz, Horwitz & Cope, 1986; Huang, 2012; Saito, Horwitz & Garza, 1999). Therefore, the present study investigated Arabic speaking high school students and teachers’ perceptions of the factors that correlate with reading anxiety. A five point Likert scale survey adapted from the research of Ahmad et al. (2013) was implemented to investigate student perceptions. Observations and interviews were conducted to investigate teacher perceptions. Strategy instruction was examined through observations to see whether or not teachers were incorporating strategies within the classroom to reduce reading anxiety. It was found that the Arabic students were suffering from reading anxiety and teachers were finding it difficult to generate effective strategies to alleviate their reading anxiety. Further research is necessary to determine effective strategies and methods for Arabic students to reduce reading anxiety.
    • Reading beyond the blood.

      Hebert, Jacqueline (2013-07-08)
      No Author abstract.
    • Reading preferences of elementary males and females.

      Langworthy, Matthew (08/01/2013)
      No Author abstract.
    • Real World Experiences in Social Studies Curriculum in a Kindergarten Classroom

      Walczak, Christina (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-12)
      Kindergarten curriculum has vastly changed in the United States since Elizabeth Peabody started the first English speaking kindergarten started in 1860 (Fromberg, 2006). The curriculum has changed from play-based, exploratory learning to a more academic learning process focusing on meeting standards, instruction, and assessment (McLennan, 2011). For teachers, it is extremely difficult to balance the required curriculum/assessments and to implement more developmentally appropriate practices such as play for kindergarten aged children in social studies. The main purpose of my project is to incorporate more exploratory social studies curriculum into my kindergarten classroom. By including more social studies in an elementary classroom, it helps to create a deeper community of thinkers, learners, and civilians that can work together to understand and solve problems in society. I reviewed the C3 Framework, Inquiry Design Model (IDM), National Curriculum Standards for Social Studies, and the New York State social studies resource toolkit, including all their resources in order to generate ideas for my curriculum project. The curriculum allotted three to five days for this curriculum. It can be modified to take longer than 5 days depending on the classroom and community. Therefore, through reading this curriculum, teacher can get clear guidance in implementing hands on social studies in a meaningful way. This curriculum project was made as a tool of reference to guide the findings of a single way to use hands on experiences in social studies in a kindergarten classroom.
    • Realizing the socio-cultural and linguistic challenges that International college students have in their program study, and evidence that they can succeed

      Liu, Xiaomeng (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      In recent years, the number of international students studying in the United States has been rapidly increasing (Fass-Holmes & Vaughn, 2015; Kim, 2013; Lee, 2009; Martirosyam, Hwang, & Wanjohi, 2015; Seo & Ljungberg, 2005; Wu, Garza, & Guzman, 2015). Due to distinct linguistic and socio-cultural backgrounds in which this student group has, international students thus may encounter a lot of differences and challenges during their academic study in higher education in the United States. Furthermore, when they get involved with their different focus of academic study in terms of majors, disciplines, even different classroom settings, the challenges become more complex and unique for individuals. Therefore, there is a need for realization and illustration of these challenges. Today, there are a number of studies that have demonstrated the challenges that international students have. Very few studies, however, have focused specifically on the difficulties encountered in terms of disciplines, and majors, which could be more in depth for illustration. The goal of the study is to illustrate the challenges that international students have especially in consideration of the problems that might be encountered in different fields of study and to demonstrate the coping strategies to come to their needs. The participants of this study include international students from East Asian countries and professors from different departments in a comprehensive university in Western New York. An online survey, as well as individual interviews, were implemented to collect data from both international students and faculty. The result illustrated the significant challenges that international students have in two perspectives: language and socio-culture. Besides, practical and constructive coping strategies were suggested and recommended by both international students and professors. This study may serve as a basis for future research in this focus of the area. [from abstract]
    • Reducing redirections in a 1:12:1 Kindergarten classroom.

      Grundtisch, Nathan (2014)
      The primary purpose of the proposed study is to improve students’ on-task and pro-social behavior in class, while simultaneously decreasing their disruptive behavior. To do this, I will use a intervention package called 3 Jars which is an adapted version of the 4 Jars Intervention. Which consists of the following components: (a) randomized interdependent group contingencies, (b) randomized target behavior and student selection, and (c) unknown rewards in the form of a mystery motivator.
    • Relationship between pre-operative Nasalance Scores, Velopharyngeal, Closure Patterns, and Pharyngeal Flap Revision rate in patients with Velopharyngeal Insufficiency.

      Mason, Kazlin N. (2013-07-09)
      Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is a disorder that results from the improper contact of the soft palate, lateral pharyngeal walls, and posterior pharyngeal wall. These muscle groups make up the velopharyngeal sphincter. This closure is necessary for the production of oral speech sounds. Improper closure leads to the production of nasal emissions during speech and an inability to produce pressure consonants. VPI is commonly treated surgically. A successful outcome of the surgery is determined by perceptual judgments of a Speech-Language Pathologist and with detailed objective instrumental evaluation (Losken, Williams, Burstein, Malick, & Riski, 2003). It is also necessary to examine the occurrence of surgical revision rates, as this directly relates to the success rate of a chosen surgical technique for a patient with VPI. Past studies have assessed the relationship between patient’s closure patterns with VPI and/or the type of revisions necessary when pharyngoplasty failed (Loksen, et. al, 2003 ; Kasten, Buchman, Stevenson, & Berger, 1997; Witt, Marsh, Marty-Grames, & Muntz, 1995; Amour, Fischbach, Klaiman, & Fisher, 2005; Schultz, Heller, Gens & Lewin, 1973). Fewer studies have systematically studied pre-surgical implications that exist, which could offer valuable information to patients and surgeons. This study investigated if pre-operative oral word and sentence nasometric values and velopharyngeal closure pattern identified patients requiring revision surgery after an initial pharyngeal flap. Fifty-nine patients who were diagnosed with VPI and underwent a pharyngeal flap surgery were included in this study. All patients underwent an evaluation of velopharyngeal function by the craniofacial team at Women's and Children's Hospital of Buffalo (WCHOB). The evaluation included perceptual and quantitative speech measures, clinical screening of velopharyngeal closure, and an oral peripheral examination. Perceptual ratings of speech were determined through live speech samples of the production of single words, sentences, and conversational speech. Resonance was categorized as hypernasal, hyponasal, mixed, or normal. Patients, who were categorized as having hypernasal speech, hyponasal speech, or nasal air emissions, were evaluated using nasometric instrumentation and multiview video fluoroscopy/nasoendoscopy. A regression analysis was performed at an alpha level of ρ ≤ 0.05; indicating pre-operative nasometry scores were significantly higher for those patients who eventually required a revision to the initial pharyngeal flap for alveolar, bilabial, and velar words and affricate sentences. Other comparisons of closure pattern, gap size, diagnosis, age, nasal utterances, low pressure context utterances, and high pressure utterances to revision rate resulted in no significant relationship. Post-operative results were not analyzed. When high nasometric values for oral word and sentence productions are noted pre-operatively, the likelihood of a revision surgery is increased. Nasometry can aid surgeons and Speech-Language Pathologists with preoperative patient counseling.
    • The relationship between readers' prior knowledge and comprehension of expository text.

      Kelly, Erin M. (2014)
      The Common Core Standards (CCSS) (Common, 2012) require students to read complex expository texts. One skill for increasing comprehension is activation of prior knowledge (Harvey & Goudvis, 2007). Having a greater understanding of how important prior knowledge is for readers’ comprehension of expository texts, of how to help students “activate” their own prior knowledge, and of how to help students build prior knowledge when theirs is lacking will add to a teacher’s collection of “tools” for assisting students to develop their skills for reading challenging and complex expository texts. This problem of teacher understanding and the role of prior knowledge has been addressed in this thesis by asking the question, what is the relationship between readers’ prior knowledge and comprehension of expository texts? The most appropriate way to address the question of this relationship has been to conduct an extensive literature review, synthesize the findings, and disseminate the results to teachers through some form of professional development. This research synthesis has determined that prior knowledge appears to have a more significant role in text comprehension than does text complexity. Further results are that prior knowledge appears to have four distinct forms: the most common being content knowledge (also called domain knowledge, domain-specific knowledge and subject knowledge), followed by vocabulary knowledge, reading strategy knowledge, and structural (or text-structure) knowledge. Each form has its specific impact on reader comprehension and an impact when used in combination with other forms. Results also indicate that students’ age and topic interest play a role in use of prior knowledge for comprehension. Overall, results show that for most readers, the combination of readers’ prior knowledge of content knowledge and text structure knowledge positively impacts comprehension of science, animal-topic, social studies, and general topic expository texts.
    • The relationship between self-concept and academic achievement.

      Alrehaili, Naseebah (2015)
      This study focuses on the relationship between academic achievement and self-concept in students with learning disabilities attending an elementary school in Western Saudi Arabia. It is an attempt to answer the research question, "What is the relationship between self-concept and academic achievement in Saudi girls age 8-10 with learning disabilities?" The previous studies suggest that because of the cognitive challenges that students with learning disabilities have, it is understandable if they have negative academic self-concept. The participants of this study were six elementary students with learning disabilities and a control group of 12 students without learning disabilities. Students' self-concept data was collected using the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale™, Second Edition (TSCS™:2), which measures self-concept in six content domains: Physical, moral, personal, family, social, academic. A measure of students' academic achievement was collected as well by examining students' final school marks. The findings suggest that academic self-concept is affected by learning disability status, but not general self-concept, which is a similar finding with Al Zyoudi (2010) study, and confirms, as Zeleke (2004) pointed out, that general self-concept is less understood as a factor to academic success than academic self-concept is.
    • The relationship between using technology classroom and the Social Studies teachers’ attitudes in Saudi Arabia.

      Alqhtani, Ebtssam (2015)
      Technology is an ever-changing tool for educators. This Masters project was designed to clarify if there are relationships between social studies teachers’ attitudes about technology and about using it in their classrooms. Findings suggest that the teachers’ gender, years of experience in teaching, and levels of education have an influence on their attitudes about using technology in the classroom. A questionnaire designed to measure teacher’s attitudes and practices was developed via the online tool Survey Monkey®. In addition, this research found that the gender did not impact attitudes about using technology in the classroom. Years of teaching experience was slightly related to teachers’ attitudes about technology, and there was a moderate correlation between classroom technology use and teachers’ attitudes about using technology. In addition, teachers with higher levels of education had more favorable attitudes about using technology in the classroom.
    • Response Cards.

      Hubert, Heidi L. (2014)
      On task behavior, assessment scores and students participation levels were examined in this project. 20, 2nd grade students, 16 Female, 4 male, 18 of which were Caucasians, and 2 were African Americans students were used for this study. Response cards were used during mathematic lessons on time for 10 days, using an A – B - A – B system. An observation checklist, frequent assessments and a student survey was used to collect data. Overall, the students on task behaviors, assessment scores and students participation levels increased because they enjoyed using response cards and found them helpful.
    • Response to intervention implemented with English language learners

      Forcucci, Kristen (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      In the past decade, Response to Intervention (RTI) has been adopted by many states and districts as a prereferral for special education. The purpose of RTI is to appropriately identify students who need special education services by intervening and providing extra support with the goal of students progressing back to grade level. There is little research on what benefits the use of RTI can have with English Language Learners (ELLs), but Vaughn, Mathes,Linan-Thompson, and Francis (2005) associate the lack of research to the fact that there has been no consideration that RTI programs "effectiveness" has only been studied with monolingual English speakers. The purpose of this study is to gain more information and understanding about Response to Intervention (RTI) and its use with ELLs. This study will expand on previous studies of RTI used with native English speakers and ELLs. Specifically, this study focuses on teacher perception of two RTI programs: Corrective Reading and Scientific Learning and if they provide any benefits or concerns to ELLs through semi-structured interviews. In addition, the study uses a checklist to analyze the linguistic complexity of both programs. Results indicated that almost all teachers believed one or both programs were beneficial to ELL learning. Research also found that the various levels of Corrective Reading and Scientific Learning programs could be used with ELLs throughout the levels of language acquisition. [from author's abstract]
    • Retangular fraction models.

      Kibler, Rachael H. (2015)
      The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore how implementation of a new, researcher-developed simple improvised manipulative (SIM) impacted 5th graders in an urban, Common Core-aligned classroom. The Rectangular Fraction Model, a SIM created with two overlapping pieces of transparent plastic, was tested through performance of this experiment. This research sought to answer the following two central questions: How does implementation of a SIM, the Rectangular Fraction Model, impact 5th grade students’ math achievement in a mathematics class at an urban Chautauqua County elementary school in Western New York? How does use of a concrete representation affect students’ conceptual understanding of abstract material as taught through the Common-Core aligned EngageNY curriculum? The researcher was interested in two areas of possible impact on student learning; student achievement measured by a formal assessment and student understanding of abstract materials evaluated through use of an interview and questionnaire. Twelve students participated in the study; they were placed in heterogeneous control and experimental groups. The results indicate that although students in the experimental group scored better on the post test and appeared to have a better understanding of the concept taught, the difference between the control and the experimental group was not statistically significant. Thus, the use of SIM is not more effective than the traditional teaching approach. However, student responses indicate an interest in using this type of intervention material, and further research should be conducted on the impact of SIM in the mathematics classroom.
    • A review of the effect of literacy education on the rehabilitation and recidivism rates of formerly incarcerated criminals.

      Erny, Brea (11/11/2013)
      This is a professional development project that examines research regarding the effects of literacy education programs within incarceration facilities on the rehabilitation and recidivism rates of inmates. This project also reveals the factors that affect the success of such programs. The findings indicate that literacy education programs within incarceration facilities have positive implications on rehabilitation and post-release life as well as decrease the recidivism rates of the inmates. In addition, the findings indicate that positive relationships between teachers and inmates, incentives as motivation for program completion, and the age and race of inmates affect programs’ success. Based on these findings, the researcher develops a professional development workshop as well as coaching follow-ups for literacy education teachers within a federal prison.
    • Rewriting the achievement gap through engagement and discourse analysis.

      Niemi, Kristen Irja (2013-07-09)
      No Author abstract.
    • The role of cursive writing on the curricular landscape of public schools today.

      Bova, Robert (2015)
      The advent of the word processor has led to the slow demise of cursive writing, including the decline in time spent teaching this form of writing in public schools today. The topic of the value and role of cursive writing in the public school has been surfacing frequently in the news media and social media of the last five years. Thus a research question forms for a literacy specialist as to what is the role of cursive writing on the curricular landscape of public schools today? The most appropriate way to address this question is with empirical research using thematic analysis of a collection of news media and social media documents as found on the internet. Results of this analysis find that most of the writings occur in news venues (major online newspapers and smaller news venues online) and in the form of articles and comments on articles, with while newspaper articles more than double any non-comment genre. The second finding is that teachers and educators comprise the largest identifiable writer type, accounting for nearly 55% of known writers; parents, news reporters, and students for second place. A third finding is that the data content supportive of retaining cursive writing in schools is at least 2 to 1, meaning that support for retaining cursive writing in schools is more than double the support for removing it from school curriculum.
    • The role of literacy in school readiness

      Noble, Brittney (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-05)
      School readiness is a problem for Kindergarten and grade one teachers and for school administrators who may not have a clear understanding of what the term includes or how it is measured. This problem of confusion of concept and measurement of "school readiness" leads a reading specialist to ask the question, what does research indicate to be the role and measurement of school readiness especially as related to literacy development? To address this question, an extensive literature review and synthesis were conducted. Results indicate four findings. First is that there appears to be no universally accepted definition for the term "school readiness." Second is that school readiness appears to be defined in one of three ways: as a measurement of certain literacy skills (frequently oral language skills, letter recognition, letter sounds, phonological awareness, knowledge of print); as a measurement of certain behavioral skills (generally: emotional coping, problem solving, self-regulation); or as a measurement of a combination of behavioral and literacy skills. The third finding is that only a few researchers define readiness exclusively in terms of literacy skills, many define it exclusively in terms of behavioral skills, and some define it in terms of a combination of literacy and behavioral skills. The fourth finding is that when including literacy skills in the definition, there is no one literacy skill or set of skills that universally determine school readiness, and no one measurement or set of measurements for measuring those skills. These findings will be disseminated through an informational professional development brochure. [from author's abstract]