• Parent and teacher attitudes toward bilingual education.

      Morgan, Evan N. (2015)
      The amount of English language learners (ELLs) in the United States has steadily increased over the past several decades and continues to grow (Nieto, 2004; Ovando, Collier, & Combs, 2006). This increase in ELLs has driven many to contemplate how to best address the learning needs of these growing numbers of students (Slavin & Cheung, 2005). While there are currently several existing models for teaching ELLs, many researchers have promoted the effectiveness of bilingual education as a means for teaching these students (Besel, Glass, Montoya-Tannatt, & Bachelor, 1982; Lindholm-Leary, 2001; Rolstad, Mahoney & Glass, 2005). However, there is still a need for more research regarding the attitudes and beliefs of the teachers and parents of these students regarding bilingual education, particularly in areas where bilingual education is not yet offered and yet is often required via a policy change. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the attitudes and beliefs of parents and teachers regarding bilingual education being implemented in their school district, before a new law mandating it is enforced. The participants of this study included parents and teachers in four elementary and middle schools in a large, urban district in Western New York. A paper-based Likert-scale survey was used to collect data from teachers and parents. Results indicated that parents and teachers are generally supportive of bilingual education and its principles and that the creation of bilingual education programs is warranted in the future. This study intends to add to the existing literature and research in this area.
    • Parent and Teacher Perceptions of Students' Early Literacy Behaviors Within Various Pre-School Models.

      Simon, Barbara (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-08)
      Parents have many options when it comes to choosing a pre-K program for their child (full day, half day, or part time). Educators are also faced with questions from parents about which types of program are best or they find themselves with students who have varying degrees of knowledge. The goal of this research was to examine the perceptions of parents and teachers when it comes to the pre-K programs and the literacy development that they see within their child from these various pre-K programs. The major questions driving this research are What are parents' perceptions of their child's Pre-K program? How do they feel the program affects their child's literacy development? What are teachers' perceptions of the various pre-K programs? How do they feel the different program options impact students' learning of literacy? The participants completed a survey and the data was analyzed quantitatively through Google Forms and qualitatively using descriptive coding and pattern coding (Saldana, 2016). The main findings from the data were that parents found the curriculum and various activities that the children do throughout the day to be important, parents of full day children saw more literacy growth within their child, all teachers regardless of the program that they taught believed that full day would be the most beneficial, and that all children from various programs showed literacy growth.
    • Parental involvement and its effects on bullying and student behaviors.

      Corsaro, Kristin L. (2014)
      Parental involvement has proven to play a large role in student academic achievement. With bullying becoming a widespread problem in school districts across the nation, one has to wonder if parental involvement also plays a role in student behaviors. Most experts agree that students with disabilities are bullied at a higher rate than their general education peers and that these types of behaviors are happening frequently. This study looks at the opinions of parents on what the true definition of bullying is, as well as examines student behaviors both in the classroom as well as during areas of transition or in specialty classes. The role in which parents play in their child’s lives may not only be affecting their academics, but their behaviors and involvement in bullying instances as well. School districts are beginning to recognize the problem and are looking to "whole school approaches” to educate all students and faculty on how to react in bullying situations in hopes to lessen the instances. By involving parents and making them aware that their involvement could play a role could also lessen the amount of bullying within their child’s classroom.
    • Participatory Approach Curriculum Guide for Teachers of Incarcerated English Language Learners

      Crowley, Megan (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      As the number of English language learners (ELLs) in the United States educational system, a group which includes adult ELLs that are incarcerated in state prison, continues to rise, so will the demand for effective and appropriate instruction for this unique group of students. Research has shown that instruction of adult ELLs is most effective when it tactfully includes the students’ backgrounds, home cultures and languages, and actual interests or concerns in the curriculum. Further, research indicates that ELLs fare better when they are involved in creating their content and are empowered to take responsibility for their own learning and language acquisition. This curriculum project looked at the Participatory Approach as a means to empower incarcerated ELLs as they acquire English in their state-mandated educational programming. While the Participatory Approach is a method often used for adult English as a Second Language (ESL) classes, its use in a prison classroom is especially poignant given the oppressive environment. This curriculum guide is meant to aid in an ESL teacher’s execution of the Participatory Approach in a prison ESL classroom and to provide flexible options supported by researched principles of second language acquisition and critical pedagogy. Future research could follow up with this curriculum guide to document its implementation to find areas of success and promise when using the Participatory Approach in a state prison’s ESL classroom.
    • The perceived benefits and difficulties students who participate in extracurricular activities experience

      Ortolano, Zachary (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-05)
      In early 2016, I conducted a study to examine how students felt they were impacted by their participation in extracurricular activities. An initial survey was conducted to examine what extracurricular activities students were participating in, from which 10 female students and 8 male students were purposefully selected to be interviewed. These 18 students were asked to describe their motivations for participation, positive and negative impacts from participation, post-secondary goals, and the impact of their participation on those post-secondary goals. The study found that students felt their participation in extracurricular activities had a positive impact on their grade point averages, school attendance and was helping them achieve their post-secondary goals. These findings support the conclusion that participation in extracurricular activities has a mostly positive impact on students, and that their participation is a contributing factor to those positive effects. [from abstract]
    • The Perception of Preservice Teachers Regarding the Impact of a Math Methods Course on Their Ability to Instruct Mathematics in Their Future Classroom

      Schmidt, Courtney (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      With the pressure of teachers to challenge and increase achievement in the area of mathematics, it has become imperative to effectively train teachers to have this mathematical knowledge. Research has shown that more teacher preparation programs are focusing on introducing the foundation of mathematics for preservice teachers knowing that they are generalist elementary educators. This study looks at the perceptions of mathematics based on the completion of a mathematics methods course in a small liberal arts college in Chautauqua County. A questionnaire was distributed and consisted of both qualitative and quantitative questions. The results show that undergraduate mathematics courses are crucial to the implementation of mathematics in the preservice teachers future classroom. Future research could pair the questionnaire with an observation to examine their delivery of mathematics instruction.
    • The perception of special teachers in Saudi Middle and High school about co-teaching

      Alotaibi, Munirah (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the perception of special education teachers about co-teaching in two areas that are teachers practice and effectiveness of co-teaching for students with learning disabilities at Saudi Arabian middle and high schools. The participants were 43 special education teachers who have experience in co-teaching class. The data was collected by online survey. The one result of this study concluded co-teachers at middle and high schools in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia did not implement the co-teaching approach as best practices of co-teaching are documented in the literature. One strong finding was that co-teachers did not share the planning and instruction responsibilities. Another finding showed that teachers perceived there were positive effects on academic performance and behavior for students with learning disabilities in a co-taught classroom. [from abstract]
    • Perceptions of Social Studies Teacher Roles in Literacy Instruction

      Hubbard, Justin (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      Research has found that Social Studies content teachers struggle implementing literacy into their content area. This study focused on the question, what are Secondary Social Studies teachers perceptions of their role in literacy instruction? The principal investigator of this study interviewed two experienced Secondary Social Studies teachers on their perceptions and implementation of literacy in the Social Studies content area. It was found by these interviews that these participants had been using higher level literacy instruction techniques as part of their daily instruction in the content area and that they perceive literacy instruction as the responsibility of the Social Studies teacher not only for the benefit of literacy ability, but for Social Studies content knowledge as well.
    • The perfect review session.

      Spry, Nicholas J. (2013-01-24)
      This study examined the effectiveness of four types of review sessions given the day before a unit exam. Over a three week period, four Algebra 1 classes were taught the same unit by the principal investigator. At the end of the unit, each class was given a pre-test to gather base scores. Next, each class was given a different type of review lesson the day before their unit exams. The four review lessons include; a teacher-led review with short practice quiz, a review worksheet completed in groups, a review game, and an individual practice exam with answer key given afterward. Unit exams were administered the day following the review day and were analyzed based on students growth from the pre-test scores to the unit exam scores. Results favored practice exams as the most effective review method, followed by a group-based worksheet and a review game, with teacher-led instruction with a practice quiz being the least effective.
    • Periods of United States Migration.

      Newell, Patrick Thomas (2013-01-25)
      No author abstract.
    • The perspective of students and faculty members regarding the use of technology in a constructivist learning environment

      Alharbi, Abeer (2015)
      The purpose of this study was to explore the different perspectives of students and faculty members of an all female, Saudi Arabian university art department regarding the use of technology in a constructivist-learning environment. This mixed method research study collected quantitative data from a survey of 70 faculty members and 70 students, and qualitative data from in-depth structured qualitative interviews of three faculty and three students. Results showed that both faculty and students had mostly positive attitudes towards using technology in the art curriculum, and were generally open towards receiving training and instructing into how to incorporate it into a constructivist learning environment, but did not feel that the technology used in Art classrooms was being utilized to its full potential. Respondents also stated that they wished that future training, guidelines and other supports be put in place to increase faculty and students knowledge of how to best use technology to enhance learning outcomes. The result of this study suggest that university faculty, administration, and researchers should consider technology-facilitated constructivist learning environments as a topic of future study and a great potential investment into the academic success and satisfaction of students.
    • Perspectives on heritage language and the U.S. and student language choices

      Papadimatos, Alexa (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      The purpose of this study was to examine what specific factors influence student linguistic choices and how those choices affect the rate of heritage/home language attrition and its subsequent maintenance. A qualitative research design consisting of interviews was used to examine how heritage language speaking college students felt about their heritage language proficiency, family connections and experiences in American public schools. The languages reflected in this research include Spanish, Haitian Creole, Romanian and Italian. The participants in this study are all students of a four-year comprehensive public university, but have grown up in areas all across New York state. The key objective for this research was to explore how the perceived attitudes of teachers, parents and members from the same minority language groups as the participants, affected the participants' own view of their home language and if the participants felt that maintaining their home languages was important. All of the participants noted that maintaining their heritage/ home language was an integral part in their success in social, economic and political contexts. This research concludes with recommendations on how school administrations and individual school teachers can come to better serve their heritage language speaking students, by checking their own assumptions about minority language communities. [from author's abstract]
    • Photomorphogenic effects of UV-B radiation and a-Tocopherol on Brassica rapa.

      Wong, Tiffany (2014)
      UV-B radiation may cause morphological, physiological, and genetic damage to living organisms. Prolonged exposure to UV-B radiation causes photooxidative damage to DNA and proteins. Sessile organisms, such as plants, are unable to escape relentless UV-B exposure. However, plants can protect themselves from UV-B by the production of antioxidants. Plants also respond to UV-B irradiance by inhibiting hypocotyl elongation, reducing number of leaves and developing fewer flowers. In this study, Brassica rapa was subjected to varying degrees of UV-B radiation and treated with a lipid-soluble antioxidant, α-tocopherol. Harmful reactive oxygen species, formed by UV-B radiation, may be stabilized by α-tocopherol. The hypothesis are that B. rapa will develop differently under UV-B treatment and B. rapa treated with UV-B and α-tocopherol will develop differently compared to B. rapa exposed to UV-B without α-tocopherol. In the experiment, two strains (RBr – standard rapid-cycling and ygr – yellow-green mutation) of B. rapa received no UV-B, ambient UV-B, or high UV-B exposure. Plants received a treatment of either α-tocopherol or water. UV-B fluorescent light (280-320 nm) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) sources were suspended above the plants. Measurements were taken to determine chlorophyll content, stem height, leaf surface area, and total biomass. Brassica rapa was found to be susceptible to UV-B radiation which resulted in shortened height, and fewer leaves and flowers. Ygr that received α-tocopherol produced more flowers under ambient UV-B exposure when compared to RBr. The external application of α-tocopherol on plants may have promoted repair mechanisms in the presence of UV-B radiation.
    • A planned approach to increase first grade parents' knowledge of curricular objectives.

      Danforth, Audra (30/10/2013)
      This empirical study investigated the use of a weekly planned approach to parent involvement with a focus on curriculum and weekly objectives in order to improve student achievement. The 15 participants were in first grade ranging from ages 6-7, from a small city school district in Western New York. The school is culturally diverse and has a free and reduced lunch rate of 80%. This study used a weekly newsletter, developed by the teacher and classroom students to help improve student grades through parental involvement. The empirical study collected data on student assessment results as well as through a parent survey. The limitations of this study were the amount of time allotted for the study, which was six weeks and the fact that some students were receiving Academic Intervention Services (AIS) which may have influenced the improved scores as opposed to the targeted increase in parental involvement. After research was conducted and collected, it was indicated that the students had improved test scores. The student's test scores showed that the newsletters were effective.
    • Planning effective inclusive instruction : utilizing three evidence based practices in inclusive classrooms.

      Thomas, Allen L. (16/10/2012)
      Due to steady increases in students being diagnosed with disabilities, schools have transitioned to becoming more inclusive. As a result, children with disabilities are receiving more instruction within the general education setting as to comply with federal mandates such as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and No Child Left Behind (NCLB). For that reason, there is a high demand for teachers to both demonstrate and obtain knowledge pertaining to evidence-based intervention strategies and methodologies in order to instruct these disabled students alongside their non-disabled peers. Current research reveals that in-service teachers possess insufficient training and a lack of familiarity with effective evidence based practices that can be utilized in an inclusive setting. Teachers cannot utilize instructional practices they do not know, students cannot benefit from educational practices they do not experience, and schools have not developed a system in which all teachers learn to make good use of evidence-based practices that enhance the quality of education for all students. Therefore the purpose of this professional development project is to provide teachers with knowledge and training in the use of three evidence based practices specifically: guided notes, peer tutoring, and response cards in order to facilitate academic success in an inclusive setting.
    • Policy versus practice.

      deGuehery, Alanah S. (2014)
      The number of English language learners (ELLs) in American schools has increased dramatically (Hardin, Roach- Scott, & Peisner-Feinberg, 2007; Schon, Shaftel, & Markham, 2008; Sullivan, 2011; Woolley, 2008). That increase has caused many challenges for educators working with culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) students (Hardin et al., 2007; Hardin et al. 2009; Woolley, 2010). The challenges educators face are due in part to cultural and linguistic differences, and are especially apparent in evaluating and determining special education eligibility, and providing educational services to ELLs (Hardin et al., 2007). Further, educators may not be adequately trained to work with ELLs, and the assessments and policies used for special education identification of ELLs may not be valid. As a result, there is a disproportionate representation of ELLs in special education (Artiles et al. 2005; Estrem & Zhang, 2010; Linn & Hemmer, 2011 ; MacSwan & Rolstad, 2006; Sullivan, 2011). The goal of this study was to find out what processes teachers use to identify students for special education, as aligned with special education law mandates. An online survey asking about identification procedures was used to collect information from teachers. Results indicate that the participants did have professional development training in multicultural teaching; however, they would benefit from more training on how to identify students for special education and how to identify certain disabilities. Participants also received valuable information from parents, and indicated the use of multiple strategies to help parents understand evaluation results, which is consistent with educational law.
    • The positives about negatives : a study of errors and misconceptions with integer operations in adult education.

      Sadler, Joshua T. (2013-01-17)
      In this experiment two classes received instruction on integer operations. The first received instruction with the use of technology and the second class was instructed through a traditional approach. The study progressed over a one week span where students began with a five question survey to assess previous knowledge of positive and negative numbers. Following the survey, four days of instruction were provided discussing each operation as its own lesson. After the instruction, students were given a twenty question multiple choice exam that was graded for correctness. Data from the post assessment was also collected to determine if there were any persistent errors. The hypothesis pertaining to the technology enhanced teaching style out performing the traditional teaching style demonstrates there was not enough evidence, as it is clear that there is no definitive difference when comparing mean scores and p-values.
    • Practicing continuity of education in early childcare.

      Bridge, Jessica M. (2015)
      This narrative explored a director’s and six caregivers’ perspectives on looping or continuity of education with young children. This study sought to answer the following questions: What perspectives do caregivers have on looping and its’ benefits? What perspective does the center’s director have on looping and its’ benefits? What are the relationships like between the caregivers and children in a looping classroom? The purpose of this research study was to 1.) explore how teachers and a supervisor describe their perspectives on looping with children through an early childcare center in a rural town of Western New York; 2.) explore how looping impacts children academically, socially, emotionally, physically, and linguistically. Qualitative data were collected through non-participant observations and interviews. Results revealed positive perspectives on the practice of looping for early childcare education. Participants expressed their joy of working closely with the children at the center for three consecutive years. The study concludes with considerations for the future to compare this childcare center with a non-looping early childhood childcare center in hopes to discover which type of early childcare education would be possibly considered as best practice.
    • Professional development for elementary teachers use of group contingencies for behavior management.

      Addison, Danelle (27/10/2012)
      Behavior management in the classroom is an important aspect and pressing issue for teachers. When children are disruptive in the classroom, it is not only a problem for their peers and teacher, but it is the disruptive child who is affected the most, academically and socially. Due to increasing behavior problems in the classroom, teachers need to be better at management [even]. This paper looks at three different types of group-oriented contingencies which are known as independent group-oriented contingencies, dependent group-oriented contingencies and interdependent group-oriented contingencies. There has been much research conducted on group contingencies with the use of randomized reinforcers aimed at decreasing inappropriate behaviors. Of these group-oriented contingency interventions, interdependent group contingencies were found to be utilized more in a classroom environment. This project presents a review of the literature on the use of randomized reinforcers, also referred to mystery motivators in this paper, with the group contingencies and their effectiveness. These interventions have been proven to be practical, efficient and economical to use for teachers addressing a target behavior. The focus of this project is a professional development plan for teachers interested in using group contingencies with randomized reinforcers in their classrooms.
    • A professional development for teachers of English Learners in the Science classroom

      Dutton, Laurie (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-12)
      There was a growing population of English Language Learners (ELLs) in the United States. Addressing the needs of these students, and determining what practices are most effective in aiding their acquisition of their target language was beneficial in nurturing these students to becoming career and college ready. In lieu of the New York State adoption of theThere was a growing population of English Language Learners (ELLs) in the United States. Addressing the needs of these students, and determining what practices are most effective in aiding their acquisition of their target language was beneficial in nurturing these students to becoming career and college ready. In lieu of the New York State adoption of the New York State Science Learning Standards there was a need for ENL teachers and any teacher that has English Language Learners in their class to be supported in providing Science learning as part of instruction. The purpose of this curriculum project was to introduce ENL teachers to new science content standards and explore English and home language use in a science environment. The content and language used to access science is examined through a place-based perspective. As a product, this curriculum product will produce a professional development module using Google Classroom. there was a need for ENL teachers and any teacher that has English Language Learners in their class to be supported in providing Science learning as part of instruction. The purpose of this curriculum project was to introduce ENL teachers to new science content standards and explore English and home language use in a science environment. The content and language used to access science is examined through a place-based perspective. As a product, this curriculum product will produce a professional development module using Google Classroom.[from author's abstract]