• Mathematical estimation and its real-world application in the construction fields.

      Newcomb, David L. (2014)
      This research investigates the gap that exists between students’ skills with mathematical estimation and calculations in real-world applications, such as construction, carpentry, and masonry. The participants were asked to apply learned methods for solving area and volume problems, while expected to perform unit conversions. It was hypothesized that students with engineering backgrounds would perform better than all other college students, including mathematics and education majors. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that students would neglect to round up to estimate the amount of materials needed to complete a given project. The assessment problems were then graded on a scale from zero to five points each in order to classify the response of each student. The data generated had shown a range of eighteen points between the best and worst scores. These scores were used to evaluate students by major, age, gender, and their mathematics grades. These categories were used to predict and compute the scores which were obtained by different sub-groups of students. The study concluded that physics/Engineering students obtained the best scores. It was also noted that many participants lacked the basic mathematics skills needed to successfully compute the problems in the assessment.
    • Mentoring Program for Novice Teachers in Private Catholic School

      Sullivan, Candice (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      We invest in our children and young generation, as they will one day lead this country. Yet, we do not invest in our teachers. Through research it was concluded that mentoring programs for novice teachers can have a major impact on the result of high quality teachers. I report on the features of, challenges, and highlights that emerged during research and formation of the mentoring program for novice teachers. These findings conclude the vital significance of mentoring novice teachers. With the concluding points, a detailed guide was created to assist with mentoring in districts with no mentoring in place for novice teachers. There is a desperate need to provide active mentoring for novice teachers to develop into a high quality educator.
    • Microbial Source Tracking of Escherichia coli in Cassadaga Lake.

      Salerno, Damian Walter (2013-01-14)
      Beaches on Cassadaga Lake in western New York State have needed to be closed numerous times by the local health department due to high fecal coliform levels measured in water samples taken from the lake. There were beach closures in the summers of 2004 and 2006, but no closures in 2005. These closures may be due to fecal pollution from wildlife or domestic animals living near the lake or to an aging sewage treatment system used by a nearby Job Corps facility. To investigate the origins of the bacteria, a microbial source tracking project was initiated on Escherichia coli isolated from the lake. During the summers of 2005 and 2006, water samples were collected five times each season from eight different lake sites. E. coli in the water samples were isolated on selective and differential media. E. coli were also isolated from goose, dog, deer, cat, duck, cow, and human fecal samples. Genomic DNA was purified from isolated E. coli strains for analysis. Repetitive element PCR (REP-PCR) using the BOX AIR Primer and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were performed on all isolated DNA samples. For AFLP analysis, DNA samples were digested with the restriction enzymes EcoRI and Msel. Fragments were ligated to nucleotide adapters, and the ligation products were used as templates for PCR. Preselective amplification was performed using primers for the RcoRI and Msel adapters. Selective amplification was performed using an Mse+C primer and infrared dye labeled Eco+A and Eco+C primers. The PCR products were run on a poly acrylamide gel in aLI-COR DNA analyzer which facilitated the creation of images based on detection of theIR fluorescence of the dye. Data was analyzed using GelCompar II software. A library of E. coli isolates from known sources was created in the software and unknown isolates were compared against this library using Pearson product moment correlation for identification. A total of 525 E. coli samples were isolated and analyzed in the study, of these 271 were isolated from the lake and classified as unknown and 254 were isolated from known sources. The data from both summers indicate that the geese are most likely responsible for the majority of the fecal pollution in Cassadaga Lake.
    • Middle and high school math teachers' narration of Ti-Navigator use as a formative assessment tool.

      Swackhammer, Michelle Lynn (07/01/2013)
      The present study was designed to examine how middle and high school math teachers narrate their uses of TI-Navigator and describe sources of external school support for using this technology. A three-part, written survey was sent to 35 math teachers in three school districts across two counties in Western New York. Fourteen usable surveys were returned (i.e., 40% response rate) that indicated that: (a) graphic calculators were more accessible and used more often than TI-Navigator, (b) there was a reported under-utilization of the technology and specific program features, and (c) professional development and support appeared to be equally minimal. Those teachers who did use TI-Navigator regularly noted some additional time demands from its use but that pupils responded favorably to the technology. Implications for future research and practice are described.
    • Middle School Reading Comprehension Strategies and Metacognition.

      Kochanski, Kiri (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-08)
      By the end of each school year it is the expectation that students meet the Common Core State Standards. With this expectation, students must use reading comprehension skills in order to meet these standards. The goal of this research was to understand more about the strategies students are or are not using before, during and after reading, how they are selecting these strategies and how they are using these strategies to support their reading. The research for this study was conducted with three middle school students (Grades 6-8) who were recruited from a single classroom. The participants completed a QRI-6 assessment, reading of a passage and an interview. The data collected was analyzed qualitatively using descriptive coding and thematic coding (Saldaña, 2016). The main findings of this research were that the participants were using current reading strategies used in their classrooms, using strategies to track their reading progress and that they were unable to remember prior reading experience using reading strategies.
    • Middle School Science Teachers' understanding of students' misconceptions of photosynthesis and respiration.

      Kestler, Nicole S. (28/02/2014)
      Do middle school science teachers accurately identify common misconceptions that students have about photosynthesis and respiration and what do teachers do to address them? Six middle school science teachers from western NY schools were interviewed in order to discover if they knew what misconceptions their students had regarding photosynthesis and respiration and what they did to address these misconceptions. None of the teachers demonstrated a true understanding of what a misconception is. The science certified teachers knew some of their students’ misconceptions in photosynthesis and respiration, but most of the non-science certified teachers did not realize their students had misconceptions in these topics. In addition, the majority of teachers did not have specific instructional strategies to address their students' misconceptions. This study has implications for the preparation of both certified science teachers and elementary teachers responsible for teaching science.
    • Migrant student challenges in education as perceived by teachers and migrant parents.

      Yuengert, Danielle (2014)
      The number of migrant students that are being educated in schools across the United States continues to increase. Migrant students are defined as the child of a parent who works in an agriculturally culturally related field or employed in those categories which the federal government has identified as qualifying as migrant work (Title I, Part C Education of Migratory Children, 2003). The following mixed-methods study focuses on identifying the challenges that migrant students face in regards to education in two school districts in Western New York. The study further investigates the perceptions that parents and teachers of migrant students have of those challenges and whether or not the perceptions are aligned with each other. Data’s were solicited from teachers through an electronic survey and extended through semi-structured interviews. Data from parents were gained through a series of semi-structured interviews. The results determined that the parents and teachers of migrant students most often perceive the same types of challenges in education for migrant students. However both the parents and the teachers felt that the other party was more responsible for helping the student overcome the challenges. Future research and implications are discussed.
    • Misconceptions that mainstream teachers in Western New York may have about English Language Learners.

      Lancaster, Jennifer E. (28/03/2013)
      With more English language learners (ELLs) entering schools, schools may not be prepared to service the unique needs of ELLs. This research examines the possible misconceptions teachers may have about ELLs in their schools. Twenty-eight teachers of varying ages, gender, and in-service years in nine different schools in western New York were surveyed regarding myths about ELLs. Teachers were asked whether or not they agreed with statements regarding myths they read or not. Fortunately for ELL students, many of the teachers surveyed stated that they did not believe many of the myths that were in the survey. This can mean several things for ELLs and the teachers. One conclusion may be that teachers are not feeling much added pressure from the ELL students but there may also not be many ELL students in the classrooms where the surveyed teachers are teaching. The use of a survey with a Likert scale, teachers were questioned about their feelings in regards to working with ELLs. With such a relative small sample of teachers, the results of this survey are not conclusive for the whole western New York area.
    • Molecular and behavioral evidence suggest two distinct life histories are displayed in Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in Lake Erie.

      Sard, Nicholas M. (2013-01-24)
      In Lake Erie Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) are an ecologically and economically important species. They are a top littoral predator as well as a popular sport fish. Previous genetic research suggests bass that live and spawn solely in the lake are genetically divergent compare to bass that live and spawn in tributaries to Lake Erie (Borden and Stepien 2006 ; Borden 2008). In this study we further validate this claim by analyzing 221 individuals from several lake and tributary sites using 7 microsatellite loci. We also provide evidence that suggests there may be two different types of tributary spawning bass based on an isolation by distance statistical test. Our data indicate that there are bass that spawn for multiple years in one stream and there are others that spawn opportunistically in small tributaries throughout the lake. Based on these genetic data it has been hypothesized that these genetic differences are the result of fidelity to different spawning sites (Borden and Stepien 2006; Borden 2008). To test this hypothesis we used radio telemetry to study bass movement patterns during two consecutive spawning seasons. Bass in our study displayed a high degree of fidelity to their spawning location during both spawning seasons with 50 to 85 percent return frequencies at each location. Our results corroborate well with the genetic data published in previous studies and cumulatively these data suggests there are at least two different life histories bass display in Lake Erie.
    • The Most Effective Fluency Strategies to Use in the Classroom

      Parrotta, Natalie (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      Many adolescent students have often struggled with reading fluently which hindered other aspects of literacy, such as comprehension. Therefore, it was necessary that elementary school teachers used more effective fluency strategies to remove this deficit in middle and high school. To address this problem the principal investigator asked the question, “What are the most effective fluency strategies that elementary teachers can use in the classroom?” Since technology has been an up-and-coming feature in the classroom, specific studies that focused on technology-based fluency strategies were selected along with repeated reading, peer-assisted tutoring, and Readers Theatre. Studies had taken place only in the elementary classroom (grades one through six). After a review of the literature and a research synthesis, it was found that technology-based fluency strategies contributed to student motivation and contained a student-centered approach, more so than the other fluency strategies. Improvements in reading fluency were also noticed with the technology-based fluency strategies. These findings formed the basis of a professional development project presented through a workshop for elementary school teachers (grades one through six). Technology-based fluency strategies were explained and practiced during the workshop, and then implemented in the classroom.
    • Motivating the adolescent reader : engaging the disengaged.

      Bogardus, Sarah M. (04/01/2013)
      This Master’s thesis project focused on the factors associated with the decline in adolescent reading motivation and the literacy strategies that can be implemented in the classroom to improve reading motivation. In addition, it also includes recommendations for a professional development project that addresses literacy strategies for adolescent students. Results revealed that implementing hands-on literacy strategies in the classroom can have a positive impact on reading motivation. Teachers who offer a variety of texts, offer student choice, acknowledge home/school connections, incorporate technology, and promote social collaboration help create engaged learners in the reading process. Therefore, all educators should be aware of appropriate and effective hands-on literacy strategies. Results of the professional development experience suggest that professional development opportunities need to be improved in order to help influence literacy outcomes in the adolescent world. It is of critical importance that teachers receive adequate professional development on adolescent literacy because findings indicate that there is a correlation between effective professional development and the reading achievement of students.
    • Motivation of female students learning English as a foreign language at Qassim University.

      Alresheedi, Hanan (2014)
      The researcher investigated, through quantitative surveys, the types of motivation influencing 75 Female Saudi undergraduate university students to learn English in the Physical Therapy program of Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. Knowing what motivates these students would have important implications for how they are taught. The types of motivation discussed and measured were based on RC Gardner’s (1985) integrative/instrumental and Deci and Ryan’s (2000) intrinsic/extrinsic theories. The surveys incorporated Likert-style, 5 point scale, to gain insight into how much students were motivated by different types of motivation. Participants were seventy-five female students, aged 19 to 23, studying Physical Therapy in the medical department of Qassim University. Although the average scores for each type of motivation being tested were similar, the results showed that these students were primarily motivated by instrumental and intrinsic types of motivation. A discussion of the most motivating reasons to study English for each type of motivation are included, as well as the single least motivating. A description of the implications on the results for teachers of these students was included. Recommendations to increase instrumental motivations included designing classes that would be useful for students’ future lives and careers, and implementing technology into the classroom. Recommendations to increase intrinsic motivation included using student-centered learning strategies, learning more about student interests, and using a variety of teaching methods to engage students.
    • Multi-faceted literacy strategy : can it improve oral reading fluency and comprehension for at-risk elementary students?

      Higgins, Kelly (19/11/2012)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a multi-faceted literacy strategy on the oral reading fluency and reading comprehension skills of three, 6th grade students who were at-risk for reading failure. The development of early literacy skills is essential to student comprehension of text material and requires an ability to identify unknown words in context and read words accurately, fluently, and with expression (Therrien, 2004). Students who do not demonstrate proficient oral reading fluency and who need to work on advanced word skills, while reading more difficult text, will lose comprehension, give up, and fall farther behind their peers in all academic areas, making these students at-risk for academic failure (Bursuck & Damer, 2007). Over the course of eight weeks, study participants used repeated readings and story mapping activities to improve their oral reading fluency and reading comprehension skills. Findings indicated that all three pupils made noticeable improvements in their reading performance. Implications for research and practice are provided.
    • Music integration in the kindergarten classroom : an ethnographic case study.

      Gronski, Stacie (02/01/2013)
      This ethnographic case study focuses on the use of musical teaching techniques in one general education kindergarten classroom in a rural school district in the Northeastern United States. It explores the importance of using music in the general education classroom, and reasons why it should be used. It is an attempt to answer the question, “What does a musically rich general education classroom look like?” The main participant of this study was a general education kindergarten teacher/self-taught musician who uses music in almost every aspect of his daily teaching. The findings of this study show how this master teacher effectively utilizes music in the general education classroom in a way that actively engages his students in their learning.
    • Music therapists' perceptions of the effects of environmental sound on skilled nursing facility residents with dementia.

      Bapst, Renee E. (2013-07-02)
      The purpose of this descriptive survey study was to investigate music therapists’ perceptions of environmental sound on skilled nursing facility residents with dementia. Participants (N=43) were Board-Certified Music Therapists who work, or have worked, in skilled nursing facilities, and members of the American Music Therapy Association. A total of 15 questions were devised and electronically mailed to participants. Survey questions were categorized as follows: (i) demographic information of participants; (ii) music therapists’ awareness of environmental sound (iii) what type of facility the participants currently work or have worked in with adults with dementia; (iv) environmental sounds heard regularly in facility; (v) what time of day/during what period these sounds are heard; (vi) typical behaviors of adults with dementia; (vii) perceived opinion on relationship between increase of environmental sounds and increase in resident behavior; (viii) the music therapists’ role in reducing environmental sound and the facility’s policies on this matter, or lack thereof. Results revealed that an overwhelming 81.4% (n=35) were “Very aware” of environmental sounds in their facility, while 16.3 % (n=7) were “Somewhat aware”, and only 1 (2.3%) respondent was “Not aware”. In regards to the perceived relationship of increased environmental sound and increased negative behavior, the study found that (n=1) respondent is "highly unlikely" while 14% (n=6) said the relationship is "somewhat likely", 37.2% (n=16) said likely, 44.2% (n=19) highly likely, and (n=1) respondent chose "no answer". Overall,the results favored a likely relationship between perceived increased environmental sound and increased negative behavior. This study also indicated that 83% (n=36) of participants work or have worked at facilities where there is no enforced policy on regulating the sound environment. Participants were asked to provide music therapy interventions that they use with addressing negative behaviors in adults with dementia. Limitations and implications for further research are noted.
    • Mystery motivators and the success of alternative education students

      Peil, James (2014)
      Teachers are always looking for ways to keep their students on task with fun things that keep the students engaged. Often times, these activities will help the students not only stay on task but learn in the process. A problem throughout classrooms in today’s alternative education school ls is how educators can get their students to come to school prepared for the day and ready to learn. In a recent research study involving extrinsic motivation and behavior modification in a rural Western New York alternative education school, the question sought to be answered was "Do mystery motivators improve non-residential high school alternative education students’ ability to attend school with their work done, prepared for the school day without any behavioral issues? s?” The study took place in a 10th grade alternative education global studies classroom. Three of the nine students were used as participants in the collection of data. Due to attendance issues and behavioral problems, the data was not consistent with the literature that had been reviewed prior to the study. The significance of the results of this research study is that it is difficult to find a mystery motivator intervention that can easily be formatted to the individual needs of each student.
    • Name that function!

      Terranova, Michelle (2013-01-24)
      This study explores the ability of students to produce the algebraic representation of a function given in various other representations. It is hypothesized that when tested on function recognition, mathematics majors will perform better than non-mathematics majors; however, both will perform poorly, that is below 75%. Students in four classes, two lower-level mathematics courses composed of non-mathematics majors and two upper-level mathematics courses composed of only mathematics majors, were given an eight-problem test that asked them to determine the algebraic representation of functions shown pictorially, in tables, in sequences, and graphically. This study provided evidence that mathematics majors outscored non-mathematics majors as the mean scores were 2.93/8 and 0.49/8, respectively.
    • Neurologic music therapy techniques : a systematic review of current research.

      Cowen, Brianna (2014)
      The purpose of this systematic review was to identify clinical research studying neurologic music therapy (NMT) and non-NMT techniques and identify which techniques are more commonly researched. Thaut (2008) describes NMT as the use of standardized treatment techniques as interventions that are founded on scientific research. The success of NMT is evidenced by clinical research. The techniques of NMT provide the therapeutic application of music to cognitive, sensory, and motor dysfunctions used as a method to treat neurologic disease. This systematic review identifies studies related to music therapy to support the various NMT techniques. For the purposes of this study, non-NMT music therapy articles follow similar protocol to NMT with no mention of NMT. Study questions are: (1) Which techniques are more commonly researched? (2) Is there a difference between NMT research and non-NMT research that studies the clinical effects of NMT techniques? (3) Which NMT techniques are more researched and developed after NMT was founded? And, (4) Which studies predate NMT? Conclusions revealed that several NMT techniques are minimally researched, and the author could find no clinical research using Symbolic Communication Training through Music (SYCOM). Also identified were several studies that predate the founding year (1999) of NMT. Recommendations include ongoing NMT research to further justify its effectiveness in medical settings, with attention to the least researched techniques.