• The Effect of Artificial Night Lighting on the Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifungus).

      Alsheimer, Laura (2012-10-25)
      With increased human development, light pollution caused by artificial night lighting, has progressively become an ecological problem for a variety of species (Rich and Longcore, 2006). The concepts of light pollution and conservation are considered especially important for those species that are nocturnal. Bats, like other nocturnal species, could be at risk from the effects of artificial night lighting; however very few studies have investigated this. Depending on the surrounding environment, a bat changes it echolocation calls accordingly to avoid obstacles and also to forage for insect prey (Wund, 2006). We must consider that artificial night lighting may impact the use of echolocation in both in foraging and in orientation; changing the relative reliance on sonar and vision. We investigated the effects of light on echolocation and associated behaviors in this study. Sixteen Myotis lucifugus were captured from an attic of a resident of the Chautauqua Institution during the summer of 2010. Four randomized treatments were preformed for each bat by recording behavior and echolocation over 1 minute. Treatments were 1) 1 minute with the light off, 2) 1 minute with the light on, 3) 30 seconds light off and 30 seconds light on and 4) 30 seconds light on and 30 seconds light off. Behavioral results show significant difference in activity when the bats are exposed to a light on that then switches to lights off. This is in contrast to no significant difference in activity when the bats are exposed to a constant light treatment. We did not find differences in sonar call structure based on treatment. Our data demonstrate[s] that the little brown bat will have a slower response time to changing light conditions possibly because of the time [it] takes for light versus dark adaption, as well as their natural response to light and dark. We also suggest that the little brown bat has the ability to be plastic in their behavior as well as sonar in constant light conditions, enabling them to adjust accordingly and be successful in both sonar and behavior.
    • The effect of dialogic reading on second language acquisition, output, and literacy of migrant students in early childhood

      Barrow, Jasmine (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      This mixed research study addressed the research question: does dialogic reading influence migrant students' language output and literacy skills? The study was based in Western New York (WNY) and was conducted in an agriculture-based migrant center. The participants of the study were 4 years of age and were both female and male. The current literature indicated that the use of comprehensible input is beneficial to the language output of English language learners (ELLs) in both the home language and the target language. The data was collected through a series of interviews and observations using anecdotal notes and an interview protocol. The compiled data was analyzed and reported through themes and visual graphs which indicated that there was a positive correlation between the use of dialogic reading and the increased output of the target language, English. [from author's abstract]
    • The Effect of Extracts from Native Species on Invasive English Ivy Applied via Stem Injection

      Alruwaili, Munayfah (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      Native plants are as competitive as invasive species but may require a new strategy persist. As humans spread invasive non-native species and continue to disturb the habitats of native species the non-natives will continue to outcompete the native species. In this study, I employ a new mechanism, stem injection, to investigate allelopathic effects. English ivy stems were injected with native seed (poison ivy, goldenrod, milkweed and snakeroot) extract and goldenrod leaf, roots and entire plant extract. Native extracts significantly inhibited English ivy growth, especially roots. Native seed extract also, inhibited radish and lettuce germination. Allelopathy is one hypothesis to explain this relationship between native and invasive species.
    • The Effect of Home Literacy Practices on Emergent Literacy Skills

      Gangi, Ashley (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-08)
      If we want students to succeed and reach high levels of achievement in their reading abilities, it is important to recognize the development of emergent literacy skills in young children and their effect on later reading success. It is also important to recognize one way to develop these emergent literacy skills is through home literacy practices. Home literacy practices have a positive impact on children's emergent literacy skills prior to starting kindergarten and therefore having a positive effect on later reading success. A free, user-friendly website was created to share this information and research-based strategies with parents and families of young children, in hopes that it will create a positive effect on children's later reading success.
    • The effect of metacognitive think-aloud strategy on reading comprehension of kindergarten students.

      Bentley, Kristi L. (10/01/2013)
      Comprehension is the key to reading success. Best practices for teaching children to read conventionally begins in the Emergent Stage of literacy. In this study, five Kindergarten students participated in read-aloud lessons using high-quality children's literature. The researcher taught students to use the metacognitive think-aloud strategy to increase story comprehension. Students then employed the strategy during read-aloud lessons in order to increase their comprehension. Treatment versus non-treatment sessions provided data to see the effectiveness of the metacognitive strategy on reading comprehension. Findings show that the metacognitive Think-Aloud strategy increases reading comprehension of Kindergarten students. The participants were identified as above average, average and below average in literacy skills, but there was an increase in overall comprehension assessment scores by all participants, showing that the participants internalized the strategy and were able to use it independently to increase their comprehension.
    • Effective classroom environments for students with disabilities and those prenatally exposed to drugs and alcohol

      Manzella, Dawn (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      This study's aim was to investigate teachers' and parents' perceptions of characteristics of effective learning environments in a small rural county in Western New York for students in elementary school with disabilities or an individualized education plan (IEP), including children who have been prenatally exposed to drugs and alcohol. The second purpose is to investigate how these classroom environments contribute to students' social/emotional and sensory development. My main questions are, what are elementary teachers' and parents' perception of the characteristics of an effective learning environment for young children with disabilities or an individualized education plan (IEP), specifically children prenatally exposed to drugs and alcohol? The participants were Kindergarten and first grade students in a special education classroom from a rural elementary school in western New York. The study was comprised of qualitative research including interviews with my participant's teachers and families. The quantitative research including an observation scale of participant behavior and classroom environment. The results were then compared to the appropriate information found within the literature review. The results indicated a specific need for appropriate classroom environments with the use of sensory and social/emotional interventions. The students responded positively the routine, schedules, and classroom set up put forth by the classroom teacher. The classroom was arranged for optimal student success. [from author's abstract]
    • Effective intervention programs and their impact on children in poverty.

      Rokitka, Justin R. (19/11/2012)
      The purpose of this master’s project was to investigate the growing problems of illiteracy in the United States, how it relates to poverty, and both literacy intervention programs and frameworks that may have a positive effect on those students who struggle. The first stage of this investigation involved research into the issue of illiteracy in the United States and its connection to poverty. Research articles were collected on the topics of illiteracy, poverty, and effective literacy programs and frameworks through the use of database searches. The second stage of this investigation was to analyze the relevant research articles discovered and identify which literacy programs and frameworks would have a positive effect on students struggling with illiteracy. The third and final stage of this investigation developed a professional development experience that would most efficiently teach these programs and framework to professionals who may use the information to improve their student’s literacy abilities. The findings of this investigation indicated that illiteracy and poverty are correlating educational issues, that READ 180, the 4 R’s program, and the RTI framework are possible ways to improve student’s literacy abilities, and that professional development experiences may improve teacher’s ability to utilize these programs and framework to benefit their students.
    • Effective literacy instructional strategies for use by General education teachers with students on the Autism Spectrum

      Haungs, Lindsey (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      This thesis project is a Professional Development Project used to complete a review of literature about what are effective literacy strategies for general education teachers to use when teaching students on the Autism Spectrum, literacy instruction. The researcher took a personal interest in this topic based on her own teaching experience of students on the Autism Spectrum. The most appropriate way to address this question was to complete an exhaustive literature review and synthesis. After a synthesis of the research was completed, four significant findings were produced. The first finding is that according to research, five instructional strategies produce effective results on literacy instruction with students with ASD. The second finding is at the middle school and high school level, comprehension is the area of literacy instruction where most instructional strategies are being applied. The third finding is that the instructional strategy of cooperative learning groups are most effective with students with ASD at the elementary level. The fourth finding is that the most effective instructional strategies can be applied across all three grade levels of elementary, middle school and adolescents: direct instruction (DI) and Class Wide Peer Tutoring (CWPT). These findings are pertinent to the professional development of general elementary teachers with students on the Autism spectrum and will be shared with them through a professional development project in the form of a handout. [from author's abstract]
    • Effective Literary Resources to Support Adolescent Parents Ensuring Kindergarten Readiness for Their Children

      Castellano, Andrew (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      Adolescent parents often lack the skills needed in order to provide their children with the proper supports that promote efficient growth in several areas dealing with early literacy skills such as letter identification, vocabulary, and phonological awareness. When these children then enter school, they have not acquired the skills they need to be academically successful. To address the problem of adolescent parents needing more support to help foster early literacy skills at home, the research question focused on what are effective resources teachers can provide adolescent parents to help support early literacy practice at home as well as how can teachers show these parents how to use them effectively on their own? To answer that question, an extended literature review and research synthesis were completed and produced multiple findings. The findings were; adolescent parents needed more support in order to provide a larger amount of involvement with their child, letter identification, letter sounds, phonological awareness, vocabulary, lap reading, and concepts about print were the skills adolescent parents should have practiced with their children before kindergarten, adolescent parents required more strategies in responsive parenting and behavior management plans, and with the right support systems in place, adolescent parents could foster a proper at home literacy environment. These findings were the foundation of the professional development project presented through a multimedia application for adolescent parents. This application allowed parents to receive the guidance they needed in order to practice the literacy skills needed for Kindergarten.
    • Effective methods for building automaticity to improve the fluency of young readers.

      Meyer, Tamara L. (2014)
      The purpose of this project was to create a teaching method that can be used to improve automaticity in Kindergarten students for increased reading fluency. Reading and Literacy Instruction are essential parts in an elementary classroom, with it being imperative to begin in a child's early years. Through personal teaching experience, I have seen children achieve fluency in reading through automaticity (fast, accurate, effortless word identification). Unfortunately, automaticity is frequently unfamiliar to early education teachers. Through the review of several theories for improving automaticity, I have discovered there is no standard practice for early education automaticity improvement. With my research, I wanted to answer the question, “What are the most effective methods for building automaticity to improve the fluency of young readers? My efforts involved applying a variety of automaticity improvement strategies in my own Kindergarten classroom. The classroom I teach provides a good cross section of socioeconomic students, as well as an equal mix of sexes. The testing took place at a public school in a general education kindergarten class, during the language arts hour. A valid informal test was administered to ensure the ability to apply to future classes. The findings of my testing show the benefits of how early intervention can help build a more confident student who will feel immediate success at the beginning of his educational path, while also showing how the implementation of mixed methods for teaching automaticity will increase the fluency sight word level in reading for Kindergarten students, thus proving automaticity is of key importance for developing readers to become fully competent and fluent.
    • Effective Multimodal Texts to be Implemented in Secondary Science Classrooms

      Kucharski, Megan (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      There has been an abundant amount of multimodal texts in which high school science teachers were able to use throughout their instruction to communicate science content. The problem related to this topic was high school science teachers were either not using them or not using them appropriately. The question related to the problem of high school science teachers not correctly using multimodal texts was “What are effective multimodal texts that support content comprehension and science literacy and how can these resources be implemented in the secondary science classroom?” To address this question an extensive literature review, research analysis, and research synthesis were completed. The participants of the studies were in a variety of science courses at the middle school, high school or college level. Multiple findings resulted from the research synthesis. The findings were trade books and technology in science classes were effective at both middle and high school levels, primary literature in science classes were effective at the collegiate level, and middle and high school science students benefited from teachers embedding multimodalities in their instruction. The fifth finding was simulations at the high school level enhanced student science literacy. This was the finding that answered the research question. This finding was then used to create a professional development Google Site for high school science teachers of all content areas. The Google Site provided a resource for the teachers to learn about simulations, understand the research behind it, practice using them, and be instructed on how to implement them into science instruction at the high school level.
    • Effective Practices to Increase Kindergarten Readiness and Promote Literacy Skills for Preschool Teachers, Literacy Specialists, and Families

      Shaffer, LeighAnn (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      Researchers have found that students have been coming into kindergarten with difficulty, in need of additional reading support, causing challenges for teachers to meet the learning needs of all students (Brown, 2014; Curby, Rimm-Kaufman, & Ponitz, 2009). The purpose of this research was to investigate effective emergent literacy practices that could be implemented by teachers and families to increase kindergarten readiness. To determine effective practices, a qualitative methodology was used to conduct empirical research through a thematic analysis of data collected from a focus group interview that consisted of five consented participants. The participants included a mixture of general education teachers, a special education teacher, and a literacy specialist. From the data analysis, four overarching themes were found including: the importance of phonics in emergent literacy development, children’s behavior and social skills, the gap between low and high academically performing students in relation to literacy skills, and exposure to literacy-based activities. The participants explained that engaging in early literacy practices such as reading with and to children, everyday conversations to increase vocabulary development, and providing young children with activities to increase fine motor skills such as cutting and coloring can increase kindergarten readiness and literacy development to decrease the student performance gap.
    • Effective professional development for literacy coaches.

      Beebe, Matthew (2014)
      This thesis examines aspects of professional development that a literacy coach might focus on in order to provide a positive impact on professional literacy practice of classroom teachers. An extensive literature review was conducted to determine an answer. The selected studies sort into four categories: high quality professional development for educators, specific types and methods of delivery of professional development, delivery of professional findings from the high quality category indicate high quality professional development appears to be that which matches school district goals, is relevant to the participants, and consists of active participation and collaboration. From the types and delivery methods category, findings are that beneficial delivery methods are those that model for participants the strategies being taught and provide a large amount of time for follow-up support. Specifically for professional development in technology, a hands-on use delivery method appears to be effective, while peer coaching with observations appears to be an effective delivery method for professional development generally. Findings from the delivery of professional development through technology category indicate that online professional development through message boards appears to be a more comfortable way for some professionals to learn; however, other professionals prefer a more focused and moderated forum for their online professional development. Findings from the category of literacy coaching as a form of professional development reveal that literacy coaches seem to be most effective at changing teacher practice when they demonstrate and model how to use a strategy, when they discuss assessments and assessment results with the educators, when they provide feedback after observations, and generally when they have a good rapport with the teachers.
    • Effective strategies for speakers of a LOTE in an Elementary general education classroom

      Mcllwain, Courtney (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016)
      This research focuses on effective strategies used for speakers of a language other than English (LOTE) in an elementary general education classroom. It also addresses the need for teacher preparation courses for English language learners (ELLs). During the research study qualitative data was used, such as observations and interviews, to collect results related to the study. The researcher observed a kindergarten and a second grade classroom to collect notes on effective strategies implemented for speakers of a LOTE. These teachers were also interviewed in order to get information on preparation courses taken during college, teaching, personal research, workshops, etc. The results show that the use of visuals and gestures are effective strategies to use for ESL students in a general education classroom. The results also demonstrate a need for more ESL preparation courses at colleges and universities.[ from author's abstract ]
    • Effective strategies for teaching content vocabulary to English Language Learners

      Brightman, Kerri A. (2015)
      The number of English language learners (ELLs) enrolled and being educated in schools in the United States is increasing. At the same time, there is greater accountability for the academic performance of ELLs, but they continue demonstrate poor performance in content areas such as Math and English Language Arts (ELA). This case study examined the preparedness for and the effectiveness of the instructional strategies being used by a group of 8th grade math and ELA teachers when teaching their content vocabulary to ELLs. It also investigated the challenges encountered by these teachers when working with ELLs, and examined their attitudes and beliefs about having ELLs in their classrooms. Data was obtained from teachers through the use of a observations. The results determined that this group of teachers had very little experience teaching ELLs and had received negligible professional training in preparation for teaching the ELLs. The results also showed some limited use of effective instructional strategies in their classrooms, and that these teachers view their instruction as not having a positive impact on the academic development of ELLs. Implications with regard to the need for additional training and a need for future research are discussed.
    • Effective technology integration in module-based curriculum.

      Putman, Lindsay M. (2014)
      This empirical study began with the question of what types of technology are teachers actually using and integrating into their instruction and delivery of the Common Core Module-based curriculum of New York State, in order to increase student achievement? A mixed methodology was used in this observation study. Participants were three elementary school teachers, all female, all Caucasian, all in the same western New York school, and all recognized by their principal as being “successful” integrators of technology into a Module-based curriculum. Data were collected from two individual interviews each, and from classroom observations of Module-based lesson teaching, using an observation sheet designed by the researcher. Results show that individual teacher use of technology ranged from 57% of the lesson time to 100% of the lesson time, and the most common functions for integrating technology were for topic introduction, providing information, modeling a skill, and student practice. The most common technology devices were Interactive White board (IWB), with clickers and teacher computers (laptops and desktop) second. The most commonly used software are was word processing and PowerPoint. Results also show that successful teachers have received professional development specifically on integrating technology into instruction, but are also confident enough to engage in their own trial and error learning. In addition to finding that these successful teachers combine strong knowledge about instructional technology and about instruction generally, results show that in order to successfully integrate technology into Module based lessons, actual technology integration also depends on the focus of the individual teachers: what is developmentally appropriate, or student-centered instruction, or knowing students’ existing knowledge.
    • Effective ways to embed the L1 into a Math curriculum to increase the performance of English Language Learners in Math standardized exams.

      Nuñez, Lucy C. (12/11/2013)
      Since No Child Left Behind (NCLB), the goal was to have 100% of all students, including English language learners (ELLs), to meet state standards by 2013-2014. ELLs are expected to progress at the same rate as native English speakers, not taking into account that these students are in the process of learning a new language. ELLs are not given enough time to gain the academic vocabulary needed to pass the NYS standardized tests (Solórzano, 2008). Some teachers would say that ELLs need as much exposure as possible to L2 input during limited class time, which is why some opt out from using the L1 in the classroom (Schweers, 1999). Other teachers are pressured to have students meet the standards and pass the NYS standardized test in order to meet AYP, that they are not incorporating effective strategies into their instruction. Research has shown that students perform better when they are allowed to use their native language in the classroom (Lightbown & Spada, 2006; Pica, 1994). It is beneficial to embed the use of the L1 during class instruction because Ells struggle with the English language and rely on their L1 to communicate and grasp concepts being taught. The purpose of this curriculum project, therefore, was to develop a curriculum where the L1 has been incorporated into math lessons. Doing so may assist in teaching concepts to ELLs more successfully which in turn may help increase the performance of ELLs on the NYS Math exam. This curriculum project was designed for teachers to use with 3rd grade ELLs.
    • Effectiveness and challenges of ENL instructional practices for young English language-learners

      Mangalathu, Aparna (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      In 2016, it was estimated by National Center for Education Statistics that there are about 4.5 million English language learners (ELLs) attending the U.S. schools. Improving the education of these students is a national educational priority. These students face many challenges when they have to learn a new language as a part of the academic requirements and policy. Seldom are teachers, who work with these students, invited to share their concerns and challenges with the decision-makers of the education policies. It is imperative to ascertain the perspectives of teachers who are such important figures in the educational lives of English language learners. This study examined the teachers' views on the effectiveness and challenges of instructional practices of ESL instruction in a school district in Chautauqua County and about the practices they employ to overcome those challenges. Seven teachers, that teach ELLs at different grade levels, were interviewed in person at the school district. In addition, the researcher also observed a few ESL (English as Second Language) classes and related assessments at the school district. The collective results in this study elaborate on the effectiveness, various challenges (social, academic, cultural, linguistic) that the teachers face while working with ELLs and how they try to overcome those challenges. [from author's abstract]
    • The effectiveness of a classroom wide incentive program to eliminate disruptive and negative behavior in the preschool setting

      Tuggle, Amanda (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-05)
      A classwide behavioral intervention was conducted in Lake Erie preschool to eliminate disruptive and negative behavior in the classroom. As a result of classroom dynamics constantly changing, the most important skill that a teacher must possess is effective classroom management. As a group, students were given an opportunity to earn 6 rewards throughout the day for maintaining positive behavior. Students who displayed disruptive, negative or distracted behaviors at any point during the day were given six opportunities to start over and correct their behaviors. Observational data was collected on the frequency of these behaviors during circle time and seat work time. Two independent observers recorded this data on students' behavior four separate times over a one month period. Anecdotal notes were also recorded to give the researcher insight on student behavior when a color change occurred due to undesired behaviors. In conclusion, it was determined that this intervention was an effective method in reducing disruptive, negative, and distracted behavior in the preschool classroom. [from abstract]
    • The effectiveness of graphic organizers.

      Humbert, Rebecca A. (2014)
      Many studies have been done to determine that graphic organizers are an effective tool in teaching, but not much work has been done on specific types. The purpose of this action research project was to determine which type of graphic organizer- Venn diagrams or concept maps- was more effective as measured through student test scores. The participants included two fifth grade students from a rural Chautauqua County School. The study was a total of four weeks long. Each week the students were given reading passages on which they took a pre-test, analyzed the readings using a Venn diagram or Concept map, and then took a post-test. The data sources included pre and post-test raw scores. The pre and post-test scores were analyzed to determine which type of graphic organizer was more effective on producing higher test results and improvements. The study found that the use of both Venn diagrams and concept maps significantly increased test scores with both participants.