• Calculator dependency and operations with exponents in an introductory college mathematics class.

      Karpie, Mabra B. (2013-10-21)
      This research explores students’ dependency on calculators particularly with exponents. Recently, students have become increasingly technology-dependent: cell phones, iPods, even calculators. It is hypothesized in this research that students will be reliant on calculators. In this study, two groups of students were given an assessment twice, once with and once without access to a calculator; the order of calculator access was changed with the groups. The students averaged better with access to the calculator, but not significantly better. In conclusion, calculators should be used limitedly in the classroom.
    • Challenges, benefits, and effective strategies for teaching informational texts in the primary grades.

      Westling, Amanda (11/11/2013)
      The Common Core State Standard (CCSS) Initiative (2011) for English Language Arts places an increased emphasis on teaching informational texts in the primary grades. However, many primary grade teachers may not have the knowledge to teach the informational text genre effectively. In order to address this challenge, the master’s project focuses on the challenges associated with teaching informational texts in the primary grades, the benefits it may present for primary grade students, as well as, effective instructional strategies for teaching informational texts in primary grade classrooms. The findings are presented through a professional development workshop that intends to increase teacher knowledge and enhance informational text instruction in the primary grades.
    • Changing the multilingual ecology in school through the collaboration of English language learners and their parents

      Gifford, Chelsea (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-12)
      The purpose of this curriculum project was to improve the Linguistic Landscape (LL) or multilingual ecology (MLE) of West Seneca East Middle School by designing and implementing the Culture Quilt and Tapestry of Hopes projects involving English Language Learners (ELLs) and their families. Despite the considerable large numbers of ELLs in the middle school, there was a substantial shortcoming of multilingual and multicultural presence in the school. To address the lack thereof, the researcher designed two cultural projects to be displayed within the middle school. The Culture Quilt involved the designing of a fabric square, reflective of each family's diverse language and culture. The Tapestry of Hopes involved the completion of a sentence strip by ELL families indicating their hopes and dreams for their child in their Home Language, English, or both. The completion and display of both projects resulted in an overall increase of multilingual ecology in addition to a noticeable excitement and enthusiasm school-wide for celebrating the diversity present within the West Seneca Schools and community. [from author's abstract]
    • The classical civilizations

      Quattrone, Nicholas (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      People of the 21st century are becoming more knowledgeable of how to operate modern-day technology. Whether it is at their place of employment or in the comforts of their home, various technological devices are used daily throughout the world. As the majority of the world becomes increasingly technologically advanced, schools have begun to adapt to the changing world. School districts are incorporating various technological devices into their classrooms to aide in the education of our students. This curriculum project proposes the concept adopting a social studies unit that is exclusively technological. Leading up to the proposed curriculum based on the classical civilizations of the ancient world, readers are exposed to the numerous reasons for implementing a solely technological classroom. Some examples as to why an educator should adopt this concept include increased levels of student engagement, student preparedness for their futures in education and the workplace, as well as an overall better comprehension of the content presented to them. The results of the students' work from this curriculum will be beneficial for future unit scoping and sequencing, as well as the overall cognitive growth of students. [from author's abstract]
    • Classroom environment and literacy engagement.

      McAllister, Kayla J. (19/11/2012)
      The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine whether classroom environment played a role in literacy engagement and motivation. The study investigated whether classroom environment could hinder or promote literacy engagement and in what ways. Data collection included: teacher and student interviews, observational notes, classroom photographs, and the Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale. The participants included one classroom teacher and three students, one male and two females from her classroom. The teacher chosen was a [twenty] year teacher with a lot of experience and the students chosen included two, four year old females and one, five year old male. [Data] was collected through various ways including: teacher and student interviews, observational notes, classroom photographs, and the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale. The data [was] then coded for common trends found throughout the duration of the study. Findings from the data support that classroom environment does play a role in literacy engagement and motivation.
    • Classroom management strategies for students with emotional and behavioral disorders

      Torres, Naomi (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      Department of Language, Learning, and Leadership Elementary students who exhibit behavioral problems often underachieve in all academic subjects, especially in developing their reading skills (Haak, Downer, & Reeve, 2012). This issue of student emotional and behavioral disorders creates a problem of classroom management for teachers. This review and synthesis of the literature to address the question of what are effective classroom management strategies for use with school age students exhibiting emotional and behavior disorders has produced three findings. The first is that research has identified three main types of classroom management strategies that produce positive impact on students with emotional and behavioral disorders: classroom instruction, teacher positive feedback and praise, and student self-monitoring. The second finding is that of the three types of strategies, the classroom instruction and teacher positive feedback and praise increased the time on task and academic performance of these students. Classroom instruction appears to produce positive academic results at the early elementary and late middle school levels, while teacher positive feedback and praise appears to produce results across all grade levels. The third finding is that student self-monitoring appears to be the type of classroom management strategy that decreases negative emotional and behavioral incidents by students with emotional and behavioral disorders across all grade levels. As a result, this strategy type also increases student time on task. These findings are relevant to the professional development of general and special education teachers, and will be dispersed to them through a professional development project in the form of a digital brochure. [from abstract]
    • College level English Language Learners' narrations of their educational experiences learning English.

      Condon, Shauna Michelle (03/01/2013)
      The purpose of this research study was to investigate advanced level English as a second language learners’ perceptions of learning English. The participants were collegiate level international education students from South Korea currently attending a college in New York State. Four advanced level English language learners were interviewed to determine their perceptions of learning English as a second language. The literature that informed the study consists of language learning theory, beneficial practice for teaching English, and pertinent research on education in South Korea. The responses were coded for themes commonly represented in the interviews. The respondents were successful college level advanced English language learners. The findings call in to question the commonly held theory that Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills are easier and more readily acquired than Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency, particularly for this population of Asian college level students educated to be successful in an English language academic setting.
    • College Students' Exploration of Isomorphic Numerical and Word Percent Problems

      Tronolone, Emily (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2016-06)
      This study examines students' ability to solve percent problems when in word form versus numeric form. The work of University Pre-Calculus students was analyzed with two isomorphic assessments measuring the accuracy of the problem solution when given in word versus numerical form. It was hypothesized that college students would perform better on numerical percent problems, specifically working with discount, tax, and tip problems. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that the words would hinder the students' ability to accurately solve percent problems when in word form compared to numeric form. The results of this study prove the hypothesis to be inaccurate. In contrast to the hypothesis, students performed better on word problems versus numerical problems (p-value of 0.013) when the problem specifically dealt with discounts, tax, percent increase, and percent decrease.
    • College students' misconceptions of the order of operations.

      Joseph, Kristen N. (2014)
      This research examines the reasons why students struggle with manipulating mathematical expressions and equations when the order of operations process is necessary. It was hypothesized that students in a liberal arts mathematics course would have difficulty using the correct order of operations process when manipulating expressions and solving equations. It was also hypothesized that non-mathematics major college students would have equal difficulty solving for variables using the order of operations process. During this study, students completed a ten-problem assessment. The assessment was generated by polling professors of mathematics. Students were instructed to solve each problem, showing all work, without the use of a calculator. The score for each problem was recorded and compared to a survey that students answered reporting their confidence in using the order of operations process. The results of the study indicated that problems using different types of grouping symbols (not just parentheses) and problems involving fractions were incorrect most frequently. Additional results revealed that there was no difference in scores based on gender and year in college.
    • College Students' Performance on Isomorphic Visual vs Non-Visual Regents Level Geometry Problems

      Leitner, Dylan (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2017-09)
      This study explores students' misconceptions regarding pictorial geometry problems. Specifically, to investigate misunderstandings students experience when solving visual and nonvisual geometry problems. During this study, college students completed two identical 6-problem assessments on the topics of area, volume, and surface area. The instrument was administered several weeks apart and directly generated from past state tests: New York State Geometry Regents and Mathematics A Exams. It was hypothesized that given an assessment composed of visual and non-visual isomorphic geometry problems college students would score lower on non-visual problems. Furthermore, students would struggle most to complete volume problems compared to area and surface area problems. After analyzing the data the hypothesis was partially confirmed. The scores were compared to a survey students completed following each assessment recording their confidence on the overall exam and each problem. The results of this study indicated there was no significant difference on student scores when comparing visual and non-visual Regents geometry problems. Additional results revealed the topic that students struggled with most was volume.
    • Comparing academic achievement of students accelerated in Mathematics to their non-accelerated peers.

      Bongiovanni, Bryan (2014)
      This thesis investigated the mathematics acceleration policy of a suburban school district and its academic effects on students. This study was conducted using a comparative analysis of accelerated and non-accelerated students from two classes, and comparing and contrasting the teachers' and administrations’ beliefs about the acceleration policy. The study was performed using a mixed methodology. The quantitative portion of the study was carried out using De-identified historical data, and a teacher survey with a Likert scale. Qualitative data was collected in the form of face-to-face interviews with school administrators. The study yielded several results on the academic effects of the mathematics acceleration policy and beliefs about acceleration of the school district’s teachers and administration. Students who were accelerated in math were later able to take more advanced math courses than non-accelerated students. Accelerated students out performed non-accelerated students academically, but several non-accelerated students had similar academic achievement to their accelerated peers. Teachers and administrators reported mixed and contradicting data. Several advocated for an open acceleration policy for those few students who meet the established criteria, but also oppose the idea of expanding the current acceleration policy to include students who just missed meeting the acceleration criteria. Results indicated that the acceleration policy appeared to be executed based on the strength of tradition rather than promoting maximum access to challenging math coursework.
    • Compose Yourself: It's Just a Function!

      Cole, Madison (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2016-07)
      This research examines students’ understanding and ability to work with composition functions in different representations. Its underlying purpose is to analyze students’ level of procedural knowledge and conceptual understanding of composite functions and to identify common errors and misconceptions associated with these functions. It was hypothesized that college students would incorrectly substitute one function into another when evaluating at a variable. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that evaluating a function value at a constant would produce better results as well as working with visual representations, such as tables and graphs. The results of this study indicate that non-mathematics major college students have neither strong conceptual understanding nor adequate procedural fluency in terms of composition functions. However, there was no significant difference between evaluating constants versus variables in the functions. Additional results revealed that while visual and algebraic representations produced no significant differences in their means (p-value = 0.545), algebraic notation negatively influenced students’ solving capabilities (p-value = 0.000).
    • Comprehension of pictures in content area texts in the Elementary grades

      D'Amaro, Samantha (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-05)
      Although recent reading programs such as Let's be Friends by Houghton Mifflin (2001) and the Common Core Modules (Common, 2012) emphasize learning to read the words (the "print") and seem to ignore the reading of illustrations (the "visuals"), emergent readers first learn to "read" by reading visuals not words. Therefore early childhood educators should be aware of "image reading" when they are "considering the kinds of meaning making children do with books prior to conventional reading" (Lysaker & Hopper, 2015, p. 650). The problem related to this reading of visuals is teachers not understanding students' process for comprehension of images, and that leads to the secondary problem of teachers not being able to assist students in the comprehension of complex texts which contain pictures, illustrations, and images. Both of these problems can be addressed by asking the research question of how the comprehension of pictures develops and assists children to comprehend expository texts as the children progress through elementary school. To address this research question, a research synthesis was conducted. The results show two sets of findings: that a developmental continuum appears to exist for the comprehension of visuals, and that there are some instructional strategies for enhancing comprehension along the continuum. [From author's abstract]
    • Comprehension of visual primary sources in social studies by adolescent English language learners

      Coccagnia, Jordan (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-05)
      Adolescent English Language Learners (ELLs) in social studies courses face the difficult challenge of making sense of primary sources which are often complex expository texts and embedded in an American culture foreign to many ELLs. One possible method for helping ELLs make sense of complex expository text is with the use of visuals, especially in the form of pictures, film, or graphic organizers. Thus an appropriate research question is, what does research say about the comprehension of visual primary sources in social studies by adolescent ELLs? An exhaustive literature review found 17 related research studies. The synthesis of these studies produced two findings. First is that using a variety of visuals and images in combination with the instructional strategies of direct instruction and interactive conversation appears to assist adolescent ELLs to accomplish several learning goals: activate content background (prior) knowledge, learn discipline-specific vocabulary, and learn discipline-specific content. The second finding is that within the discipline of social studies, adolescent ELLs of all types appear to benefit from teachers using visually focused conversation-based instruction and Internet technologies to facilitate interaction with primary sources, and using multiple forms of historical primary sources (including digitized) to develop students' social studies comprehension through historical thinking, historical imagination, and historical inquiry. These findings are relevant to high school social studies teachers and will be dispersed to them through a professional development project. [from author's abstract]
    • Corporal punishment in schools.

      Hunt, Sommer B. (2014)
      This study was done on corporal punishment in US schools because it has been a continuous controversy in education. Corporal punishment in schools is meant to inflict pain as a consequence of bad behavior. There are many different methods used but the most common is using a wooden paddle to swat or give licks to the student’s buttocks. Corporal punishment is still legal in 19 states. I thoroughly compared six different elementary school discipline policies that I randomly selected in six different counties in Mississippi and in Florida. I wanted to investigate how corporal punishment differs in a waiver state verses a non-waiver state. The counties in Mississippi include Alcorn, Attala, Benton, Carroll, Itawamba and DeSoto. The Florida counties include Baker, Bay, Marion, Hamilton, Holmes and Levy.
    • A correlational study on how reading for enjoyment becomes reading for success.

      Clary, Colleen S. (2014)
      Current literature suggests that a student who chooses to read in their free time will, as a result, improve in their literacy skills in academic settings. Findings further indicated that students who chose to read a wide range of personal entertainment materials will improve in reading, writing, and personal communication skills. This Master’s Thesis project focused on the correlation between an individual student reading for enjoyment voluntarily and said student’s academic success in standardized test setting. The sample size was approximately one hundred 10th and 11th grade students in a rural district. Participants were invited to complete a self-reflective survey on their personal and preferred reading usage. Survey responses were compared to a measurement of students’ English proficiency through the New York State Regents English Language Arts (ELA) test.
    • Count off by threes?

      Hamiliton, John D. (2014)
      No author abstract.
    • Creating a technology-friendly learning environment.

      Eckley, Cherilyn E. (2014)
      Literacy is no longer limited to reading and writing on paper, but now includes many types of digital devices. Students will now require some digital literacy skills in order to read and write with these new media. Teachers as well will require revised instructional practices in order to incorporate the latest technology into their classrooms. This research study addresses the question of what research says about using features of touch-screen interactive app-based technology to assist classroom teachers in modifying their instruction to a more student centered and technology-friendly learning environment. An extended literature review and synthesis was conducted and produced two major findings. The first finding is that teachers’ lack sufficient knowledge about the features of touchscreen devices may be a factor to limit the incorporating of these into a classroom learning environment; however, those teachers who do take the time and have the interest to learn about or receive professional development in touch-screen devices and incorporating them into lessons and the classroom environment report an increase in knowledge and positive experiences. The second finding is that the “apps” of EdModo, GroupScribble, and VoiceThread all contain features that are particularly helpful for instructional purposes and for building a “community” of learners within a technology friendly learning environment of the classroom.
    • Creating effective homework policies in the secondary mathematics classroom.

      Johnston, Eric M. (2013-01-15)
      There has always been a great debate about whether or not homework is really needed in the classroom. Homework policies over the past 100 years have changed drastically. There is a constant battle between advocates for and opponents of homework. Together, they have created a list of positive and negative effects of homework. A review of the literature helps determine what the ideal homework policy would be in order to encourage higher student achievement, and minimize the negative impacts of homework. How do in service teachers' policies stand up against research based policies? Interviews with rural New York State teachers have determined the core components of a homework policy that most teachers have. Some not-so-common policies and researchers' key points to include in a homework policy have also been included. Homework is indeed effective, especially when it is based on research and contains the core components of an effective homework policy in the secondary mathematics classroom.
    • The creation of culturally relevant English language arts curriculum to promote identity resolution among high school English Language Learners

      Killian-Benigno, Alanna (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-12)
      There currently is a lack of curriculum that addresses identity development of adolescent English Language Learners (ELLs) in New York State (NYS) Common Core Modules, an important provider of curriculum for New York high schools. The purpose of this curriculum project was to create a curriculum that promotes the identity development of adolescent ELLs while providing culturally relevant lessons. The goal of these units is for the students to create multimodal identity texts in the form of an autobiography. Identity development is the major crisis of adolescents (Erikson, 1960/1999; Erikson, 1982), and as individuals with diverse factors contributing to their identities (Delgado & Stefancic, 2012; Phinney, 2008), ELLs have additional challenges to address during this critical period. This project draws upon Funds of Knowledge (González, Moll, Tenery, Rivera, Rendon, Gonzales & Amanti, 1995), and Culturally Relevant Pedagogy (Ladson-Billings, 2009) to create a curriculum for a multilingual 10th grade stand-alone ENL classroom. The curriculum is called "Narrating Our Stories with Identity Texts". [from abstract]