• A 4th grade Curriculum Guide for writing instruction that aligns with the New York State Common Core reading and writing standards.

      Nelson, Kyle (2015)
      This curriculum project provides teachers with instructional resources and lesson plans that integrate writing into reading in a fourth grade classroom. It includes ways to structure writing within their classroom that create an engaging writing atmosphere where students are motivated and are willing to take risks as writers. Answering text based questions requires a particular process that includes understanding the prompt or question, organization or construction of ideas and explaining answers with text evidence. When writing, students are required to write under the three genres of narrative, informative and opinion. The research based strategies have been included as a guide for teachers, along with four modules that contain lesson plans with writing prompts that are part of the three genres. An appendix contains additional graphic organizers and assessment tools for teachers to use during writing instruction.
    • A.W.E.S.O.M.E. community programming in freshman residence halls: education through engagement.

      Tierney, Frank William (28/10/2012)
      Does residential programming produce important learning gains for college freshman beyond what they learn in the classroom? How do freshman residents in a small, regional comprehensive college feel about these programs? These questions, among others, were the focus of the present study. A group of 10 Resident Assistants in conjunction with the investigator developed 10 program units under the title of AWESOME, an acronym for Artistic, Wellness, Emotional, Spiritual, Occupational, Multicultural, and Educational; a community residential programming curriculum for college freshmen. Resident volunteers were exposed to 10 specific program topics and activities and were pre-and post-tested on their understanding of important program content. In addition, residents independently and anonymously completed consumer satisfaction surveys following their participation in program activities. Findings indicated that the AWESOME program produced consistent and numerous improvements in residents’ understanding of program content across all 10 topics. Additional information indicated that residents rated program goals, activities, and outcomes quite favorably. In spite of these positive effects, however, outcomes were limited by rather low attendance (11%) rates across programming sessions. Implications for future research and practices are offered.
    • Accounting for differences in literacy ability among children entering kindergarten.

      Sharpe, Sandra (2015)
      This capstone project explores the question of factors that may account for variance in literacy ability among children entering Kindergarten. This researcher has personal interest in this topic because of her own experience as a Kindergarten teacher. The most appropriate way to address this research question is with an exhaustive literature review and research synthesis. The synthesis produced five findings. First is that participation in a structured, formal preschool has a positive impact on the literacy development and school readiness of all children, regardless of their diversity or non-diversity, or socioeconomic status (SES). Second, the quality and type of instruction a child receives in preschool has an impact on that child’s literacy growth, and third, the impact from attending preschool is not directly influenced by a child’s SES or demographics. Fourth is that home literacy experiences have a greater impact on literacy development than SES regardless of the SES level. Fifth is that SES levels are factors in language and literacy development only indirectly because they can impact family stress, a mother’s well-being, and size and number of literacy activities in the home; low socioeconomic status and a mother’s level of education do not automatically mean poor literacy development, neither do they hinder literacy development when there is rich home literacy environment. The application of this new knowledge will result in professional development for Kindergarten and grade one teachers, and will take the form of a video accessible for free on YouTube and Teacher Tube.
    • The adaptability of read alouds.

      Palmer, Rachel (2014)
      The basis for this research is to examine the topic of the adaptability and flexibility of read alouds in the elementary classroom. [The] question [of] how elementary teachers can capitalize on the flexibility of the read aloud instructional strategy in order to enhance reading motivation and literacy skills of all their students is best answered through an extensive literature review. The synthesis of the review produced several pertinent findings: that active engagement in read alouds appears to increase the vocabulary size and word meaning of early elementary students, that an interactive read aloud approach has positive effects on the vocabulary development and comprehension of English language Learners, that teachers frequently use the interactive read aloud approach with narrative texts to focus on language plan and development, and that impactful read alouds occurs as a result of teacher’s explicit planning and involving frequent cognitively challenging questioning to improve students’ comprehension, These findings have a strong application to teacher practice in the elementary classroom and therefore will be presented to elementary teachers through an[d] in-person professional development workshop.
    • Adolescent reading habits and perceptions

      Glasier, Alyzia (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      It is said that adolescents do not read, but this is not true. Teachers and educators of adolescents need to become aware of adolescent reading habits. They are reading, it is the materials that are being read and adolescents' perceptions of those materials that has led to the widely held opinion that adolescents do not read. The goal of this research was to examine what adolescents perceive reading to be, what types of materials they read, and to understand if students are not reading anything at all, what they are doing in their leisure time. The major questions driving this research are what are adolescents' perceptions and attitudes of reading and what are their reading habits? The research for this study was conducted with six high school student participants (grades 9-12) who were recruited from a local library's homework help program. The participants completed two surveys, one on paper and one online. The data collected through the surveys was analyzed quantitatively through a survey generating program (Freeonlinesurveys.com, 2018) and qualitatively using descriptive coding and pattern coding (Saldaña, 2016). The main findings from the data were that the participants were either avid readers or non avid readers. Also, there were many differences between avid readers and non avid readers including: enjoyment levels, when reading occurs, the types of reading done, and motivations to read. [ from author's abstract]
    • Adolescents' out of school writing practices with technology

      Lotocki, Kimberly (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      Reports of writing assessment results from The Nation's Report Card (NAEP, 2011) and the New York State 2017 Grade 8 ELA assessment (NYSED Data Site, 2017) indicate that students in grade 8 are struggling with writing achievement on standardized assessments in school. Also, the use of technology is popular among most students. Research shows that the number of school aged students with personal cell phones and other electronics appears to be increasing (Lenhart, 2009). With this rise in technology use, it appears that eighth graders may be composing texts for self-expression and communication with peers every day, yet struggling with writing achievement in school. Thus, to obtain more information regarding students' writing with technology, appropriate research questions are: what are adolescents' out-ofschool writing practices?; and how do adolescents use technology in their out-of-school writing? By conducting an empirical study with a qualitative methodology, this research determined the out-of-school writing practices of three eighth grade students, specifically writing with technology. After analyzing digital writing samples, survey responses, and individual interviews of the three participants, the following findings emerged. First, the most prevalent out-of-school writing practice included texting or other typing on a cell phone, tablet, or game system. Second, following standard writing conventions was not a priority or necessity for the participants in their out-of-school writing. Third, textisms and emojis make up a large portion of the participants' writing with technology. And finally, the students prefer to type on a cell phone or computer rather than writing with paper and pencil. [from author's abstract]
    • The Affective Factors that Influence a Child's Emergent Literacy Skills and Behaviors.

      Gawron, Taylor (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2018-08)
      Emergent literacy is a child's knowledge of reading and writing skills before they learn how to read and write words. This skill should be continued to be monitored through the transition from kindergarten to first grade. There are affective factors that affect a child's emergent literacy skill, self-efficacy, motivation, attitude and family factors. It is important for parents and guardians to be educated on what emergent literacy is and what they can do to support and enhance their child's skills and behaviors. As a result, a curriculum project was developed to present to a wide variety of school districts for parents to develop a better understanding of what emergent literacy is and what factors can influence their child's skill and behaviors. Also, this website will provide ideas and activities for parents to help to enhance their child's skill and support their learning.
    • Altering the Home Literacy Environment: A Look into How Teachers are Supporting Families Through Home Literacy Interventions

      Piatek, Kaitlyn (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2019-05)
      This empirical research study investigated the following two research questions: what are kindergarten, first and second-grade teachers currently using to make improvements to the home literacy environments of their students and what supports are teachers providing to families of their students to make these improvements successful. In this study, nine elementary teachers were surveyed. An online survey containing qualitative and quantitative questions was used. The first finding from this research study was that teachers are currently provided families with literacy resources/activities to complete at home with their child/children. The second finding for this research study was that teachers stated that it would be possible to positively influence the home literacy environments of their students but they needed more literacy resources in order to adequately support their students’ literacy learning at home. The third finding was that the participants were confident in their ability to support families with home literacy practices and were knowledgeable about the most effective home literacy practices that families could use. The findings from this research study showed that kindergarten, first and second-grade teachers were supporting the home literacy environments and the families of their students by sending home literacy resources.
    • American history simulations, reenactments, and educational games: a supplemental middle school curriculum.

      Moore, Kerrie L. (10/01/2013)
      This curriculum project is designed to supplement the New York State seventh and eighth grade American history social studies course with active learning strategies. Three strategies including simulations, reenactments, and educational games will be supplemented into each unit. A total of 33 active learning activities, equal numbers of each, will be added to the 11 units that comprise the two-year course of study. Students often find it difficult to absorb the information and be motivated by the content (Russell & Waters, 2010). Teachers find it hard to teach all the necessary content and still be able to go in depth on the material (Pattiz, 2004). The three active learning strategies designed as supplements to the social studies curriculum have been proven to be effective in increasing student interest on the subject as well as their achievement.
    • An Analysis of Acceleration and Advancement Criteria in Middle School Mathematics

      Rappole, Robert (State University of New York at Fredonia, 2016-11)
      This research explores the criteria associated with various accelerated middle school mathematics programs currently employed by New York, North Carolina and other states across the United States. In addition, a longitudinal study of a single accelerated cohort of 25, 2016 graduates was investigated, so as to discern possible gaps in their original accelerated design. It was hypothesized that school districts make use of limited mathematics acceleration criteria, often focusing solely on either teacher recommendations or standardized assessments. Also, it was expected that the majority of district policies did not offer/include provisions for students to easily transfer into the accelerated mathematics program if students exhibit qualifying mathematical talent later in their secondary school career. First and foremost the survey research showed that teacher recommendation was used by 68.75% of schools, testing was addressed in 90.63% of schools and grades were a factor for 75%, making up the primary criteria for advancing students. Other data collected revealed that only about 60% of schools give the option to join the program at a later date, approximately 40% gave parents the right to override the school's placement decision, and roughly 20% of all schools surveyed had a set number or percent of students allowed into the program each year. When examining the longitudinal study, the 12 ‘additional’ students faired almost identically to the 13 ‘primarily placed’ students, each had approximately 33% of their group drop out of advanced placement and both groups had 6 students successfully complete Calculus I or higher. Half of the students in the additional group took Calculus or more advanced courses their senior year of high school. Based on the original criteria, none of these students would have had access to the advanced/college level mathematics coursework. In a class of only 60 students to miss 6 students is to miss 10% of the class. Implications from this study were that all policies should have opt-in or opt-out options for students, a scoring rubric, parental override procedure, a balance between and use of multiple criteria, no population limit or percentile cut-off and schools should compact classes, meaning combining 6th and 7th grade mathematics, not just skip grades.
    • An analysis of language difficulties in Algebra I (Common core) assessments versus integrated Algebra assessments

      Spoth, Amy (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-05)
      The purpose of this study was to determine if the difficult linguistic features of mathematics assessments correspond to teachers' perceptions of the assessments. A mixed methods research design was used in order to analyze the linguistic features of each exam and also gain insight to how teachers feel about the assessments. The assessments analyzed in this study were the June 2008 Integrated Algebra Examination and the 2015 Algebra I (Common Core) Assessment. In addition to comparing linguistic features of the two assessments, interviews were conducted. Two teachers were interviewed in one school district. The results of the data collection indicated that while the Algebra I (Common Core) Assessment contained more difficult linguistic features in fourteen of the sixteen categories, readability tests showed the Integrated Algebra Examination is written at a higher reading and grade level. The results of the interviews concluded that while students may struggle with linguistically difficult features in mathematics, there are strategies which may be incorporated into instruction in order to help these students overcome these challenges. Some of these strategies may include practice reading texts with difficult linguistic features in mathematics classrooms, explicitly teaching students how to separate mathematics and language, and collaborating with other teachers to determine what strategies may work best for your students. [from abstract]
    • An analysis of the changes to New York State commissioner's regulations part 154 and the impact on the landscape of English language education

      Marks, Caroline (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2018-05)
      The purpose of this study was to identify the changes between the two most recent iterations of New York State's Commissioner's Regulations (CR) Part 154, a policy document detailing the requirements for services provided to English language learners in the state. The researcher performed a content analysis of two versions of the same policy to identify specific changes in text and additions to the policy. Readings of outside sources in print media and press releases from educational organizations were performed to assist in interpretation of the contextual features of the policy and structural influences on policymakers in order to develop an understanding of the policy and a sense of the direction in which ELL education and services may be heading in the future. Findings from the document analysis indicated five major changes and additions between the two versions of CR Part 154 as well as minor alterations that may have an effect on stakeholders in ELL education. An investigation of educational issues in the media and press releases support findings that some aspects of the Part have been given priority in educational decisions. It is suggested that future research utilize interviews and observations of all those involved in the education of ELLs in order to develop a clear picture of the implications of the expanded policy on achievement, language development, and teachers' work experiences. [from author's abstract]
    • Analyzing the linguistic landscape of Japantown and Koreatown in Manhattan, New York

      Golden, Judy (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      Over time, Manhattan, New York has become home to thousands of Korean and Japanese people. These groups have brought their languages and cultures with them, along with a drive to be successful. To better understand the representation of these minority languages within the landscape, an analysis must be done on the landscape and on the representation of these minority groups. This study examines the linguistic landscape of Koreatown and Japantown in Manhattan, focusing on the representation of culture and identity in the landscape. In addition, language policies and linguistic boundaries are examined for insight into the formation and representation of signs in these linguistic landscapes. All signs in Koreatown and signs pertaining to Japanese establishments in the unofficially labeled Japantown were photographed and categorized. Surveys were randomly conducted with pedestrians and shop workers of Korean or Japanese ethnicity. Signs were examined for representation of the respective languages in their linguistic landscapes and surveys were studied to obtain attitudes about language, landscape and policy. The findings revealed that the linguistic landscape of Manhattan is English dominant, there is language and cultural representation in these linguistic landscapes. Yet, one linguistic landscape has suffered due to a small number of speakers and negative language attitudes. Overall, the linguistic landscapes in Koreatown and Japantown, to a lesser degree, does reflect the groups language and cultural identity. However, inconsistencies on language attitudes are found between the survey answers and photographs. Implications are discussed with regards to Korean ANALYZING THE LINGUISTIC LANDSCAPE and Japanese communities and the ethnolinguistic vitality they may have towards areas of Manhattan, NY's linguistic landscape. [from author's abstract]
    • Analyzing the multilingual landscape of Buffalo, New York.

      Dixson, Amanda E. (2015)
      In recent years, Buffalo, New York has become home to thousands of immigrants and refugees from across the globe. These people have brought with them diverse cultures, desires for the future, and their home languages. As a designated refugee resettlement city, Buffalo is an incredibly diverse city that welcomes thousands of refugees from all over the world each year; Buffalo also has an established Latino/a community. This study examines how these linguistic communities are represented in the linguistic landscape, and what deeper symbolic meanings signs in the linguistic landscape hold for them. All signs on six streets within a two mile radius of Buffalo's most diverse neighborhoods were photographed and categorized. Signs entirely or partially in non-English languages were plotted on an electronic map and examined for potential symbolic meanings. The linguistic landscape of Buffalo, although vastly English dominant, reflects some of the diversity of the area. However, the signs in Buffalo’s linguistic landscape reveal language ideologies are present and sometimes promote one language over another. Since languages are tied to identity, relegating languages can promote ideologies against ethnic groups tied to those languages. Overall, the linguistic landscape reflects the need to learn English to function in American society, but inconsistencies are found throughout the city that reflect the presence of non-English speakers in the area, and occasionally the promotion of their culture and language.
    • Anxiety in action.

      Gulick, Mimi E. (2013-01-24)
      Math Anxiety is a term used to describe the anxious symptoms felt by those who suffer from it while confronted with mathematics. This study investigated the levels of math anxiety experienced by college students. It was hypothesized that students in non-major mathematics courses would score higher on the Gulick Math Anxiety Scale than their peers enrolled in mathematics courses for mostly mathematics majors. Furthermore, those students who identified themselves as having medium to high levels of math anxiety, would attribute that anxiety to a negative past experience in a mathematics classroom. Data collected was both qualitative and quantitative in nature, and revealed that students in the non-major classes scored higher on the Gulick Math Anxiety Scale than the students in the classes for mostly mathematics majors. The math anxiety that existed in students was highest when associated with testing anxiety, and the main reason students reported math anxiety was due to a lack of confidence.
    • Application of cooperative learning approach.

      Xuan, Ling (2015)
      This paper makes a study of the feasibility of CL application and the teachers and student’s attitudes towards it in the foreign language classroom in China. The study adopted a mixed-methods design- an online questionnaire for the students regarding their attitudes of CL, and individual interviews of 7 English teachers toward the use of CL. Her participants were 166 students and 7 of their English language teacher of English class in Wenzhou, China. By doing this research, the researcher hopes that CL can receive more attention and enjoy more popularity among EFL teachers at all grade levels, so that English education in China can be actually improved. Along with the results that the researcher found from this research, she puts forward her suggestions about application of CL in foreign language classroom in china. What's more, the findings of this study will have a potential to alert Chinese policy-makers to improve the current college English learning instructions through better understanding of students’ and teachers’ attitudes.
    • Are teachers promoting extracurricular activities to low achieving students?

      Kirsch, Stephen (2014)
      This research investigates teacher support of extracurricular programs to low-achieving students. Students who participate in extracurricular activities generally benefit from the many opportunities offered to them. Benefits of participation in extracurricular activities include better grades, scoring higher on standardized tests, fewer school absences, learning life skills that are not learned in the classroom, and a feeling of connectedness to their school. This study was designed to determine teachers’ perceptions of extracurricular activities and their advantages, as well as how they encourage or discourage these opportunities to low-achieving students. A survey containing both Likert-scale and free response questions was administered to teachers in a rural middle and high school to analyze the aforementioned research questions.
    • Are you smarter than a high-schooler?

      Martin, Ashley R. (2013-01-14)
      This research examines the ability of students in introductory level college mathematics courses to recall fundamental information they learned in high school mathematics courses. During the first week of the Spring 2012 semester, students from three college mathematics classes were given a nineteen-problem quiz that consisted of problems on high school mathematics topics. Immediately following the quiz, the students were asked to complete a six question survey which was used to measure students’ prior mathematical knowledge, their outlook on mathematics, and how easily the students felt they could complete the quiz based on their ability to recall previously learned material. Results from the quiz and survey were compared and analyzed to draw conclusions. At the conclusion of this research study, it was determined that a significant difference existed in the students’ scores on individual questions based on the type of mathematics problem and a significant difference existed in the students’ total quiz scores based on their previous mathematics experience.
    • Area Awareness : a preadolescent perspective.

      Bland, Reid (2013-01-25)
      No author abstract.