• The success of No Child Left Behind

      Nicholson, Jordan (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-05)
      The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), enacted into law in 2002, was the culmination of years of policy work and political posturing and represented the most sweeping changes to the American education system since the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1964 (McGuinn, 2006). The analysis of this policy is particularly important because it will help future generations identify the positives and negatives of federal intervention in education. Beginning with the National Defense Education Act in 1958, the federal government has gradually increased its role in the oversight and administration of public education (Kessinger, 2011). Following landmark reforms like those enacted during Lyndon Johnson's "Great Society" and Jimmy Carter's creation of the federal Department of Education, this intervention reached its apex in 2002 with the passage of NCLB and touched off a spirited debate across the country about how best to evaluate school performance (McGuinn, 2006). The act's provisions, including teacher evaluations; an emphasis on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); and mandatory standardized testing, changed the landscape of public education. Whether these initiatives improved the quality of American education is the subject of intense debate (Moores, 2004), but there exists a measurable impact on test scores, which lends credence to the idea that it was a successful policy. While the stated goals of the policy were not met, evidence exists of significant progress towards American education improvement in the 21st century. [from author's abstract]
    • Teacher attitudes toward No Child Left Behind and part 154 in the English as a New language classroom

      Villafrank, Caroline (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2016-05)
      As the population of English Language Learners continues to grow, policymakers, legislators and courts alike have struggled with implementing educational policy. Virtually, since its inception, the United States has struggled with determining how to best educate its linguistically diverse students. From segregation cases in the 40s, 50s and 60s, to modern day English only movements, to present day policies such as No Child Left Behind, any educational victories that have been obtained have been intermittent and disjointed (Powers, 2014). As the United States continues to grow increasingly diverse are policymakers prepared to adequately meet the demands of educating English Language Learners? The purpose of this study is to examine how English as a New Language Teachers (ENL) in Chautauqua County New York perceive No Child Left Behind and Commissioner's Regulations Part 154 in the ENL classroom, and whether these laws have influenced their teaching. Data was obtained through face-to-face interviews, observation and recording and policy analysis. Results indicate that participants felt mostly negative towards No Child Left Behind, and viewed Part 154 favorably. Participants' negative perceptions towards No Child Left Behind did not appear to negatively affect their teaching. Implications for addressing the educational needs of ELLs and Policymaking, as well as future research are also discussed. [from author's abstract]