• The effects of visual stimulation on the mathematics performance of children in second grade with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

      Britt, Alicia K. (2014)
      Students in Elementary schools may learn differently than older students. Manipulatives used in the second grade classroom can benefit student learning. Students of all learning abilities can benefit from the use of manipulatives in the classroom. All students in elementary schools can learn differently and the way they are taught can help them in their education. Educators should use the best way of instruction to benefit their students. This study looks at the effects on student learning with the use of manipulatives in a second grade classroom. The students are of different levels of learning abilities.
    • Retangular fraction models.

      Kibler, Rachael H. (2015)
      The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore how implementation of a new, researcher-developed simple improvised manipulative (SIM) impacted 5th graders in an urban, Common Core-aligned classroom. The Rectangular Fraction Model, a SIM created with two overlapping pieces of transparent plastic, was tested through performance of this experiment. This research sought to answer the following two central questions: How does implementation of a SIM, the Rectangular Fraction Model, impact 5th grade students’ math achievement in a mathematics class at an urban Chautauqua County elementary school in Western New York? How does use of a concrete representation affect students’ conceptual understanding of abstract material as taught through the Common-Core aligned EngageNY curriculum? The researcher was interested in two areas of possible impact on student learning; student achievement measured by a formal assessment and student understanding of abstract materials evaluated through use of an interview and questionnaire. Twelve students participated in the study; they were placed in heterogeneous control and experimental groups. The results indicate that although students in the experimental group scored better on the post test and appeared to have a better understanding of the concept taught, the difference between the control and the experimental group was not statistically significant. Thus, the use of SIM is not more effective than the traditional teaching approach. However, student responses indicate an interest in using this type of intervention material, and further research should be conducted on the impact of SIM in the mathematics classroom.
    • The use of concrete manipulatives in third grade special education and student achievement.

      Corsi, Laura (2014)
      This action research project was designed to examine the effects of student achievement using concrete manipulatives versus traditional lecture style teaching in mathematics education. A fraction tile set of manipulatives was used to study individual’s achievement of mathematical understanding. While substantial evidence exists to support the empirical foundations of this approach, very little, if any, systematic research has been conducted on its impact on student earning. This project, therefore, examined the effects of concrete manipulatives on the acquisition and retention of new knowledge by 5 third grade special education students. The effects of concrete manipulatives were compared to a more traditional didactic teaching approach. Results suggested that concrete manipulatives were more effective than that of the traditional lecture style. Students were compared to themselves in terms of scores, mean and percent change. An identical paper and pencil pretest and post test was given before and after both interventions. The findings showed that all students improved from the baseline data to the post test scores. Students' mathematical achievement was positively impacted when students used concrete manipulatives during the equivalent fraction unit.
    • The use of virtual manipulatives in fourth grade to improve mathematic performance.

      Morris, Jaimie (28/02/2014)
      Virtual manipulatives are mathematical tools recommended by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), which are underutilized within elementary schools. This study investigated the impact of virtual manipulatives on fourth-grade students’ mathematic performance. Students in one general education math class were randomly assigned to either a treatment group or one of two control groups. Together the three groups were comprised of twelve fourth-grade students who were taught by the same math teacher. The treatment and both control groups studied adding and subtracting three to six digit whole numbers. The treatment group used virtual manipulatives to practice the concepts from the lesson, while one control group used concrete manipulatives and the other control group used paper and pencil worksheets to practice the concepts. An identical paper and pencil pre-test was given prior to instruction to all groups as well as an identical paper and pencil post-test after the unit of adding and subtracting whole numbers. The findings showed that all three groups scores improved between the pre-test and post-tests. However, there was a significant improvement with the students who participated in the virtual manipulative group. Students’ mathematical performance was positively impacted when students used virtual manipulatives during the adding and subtracting whole numbers math unit.