• The influence of prewriting strategies on the academic writing of students with learning disabilities

      Giacomini, Evan (State University of New York College at Fredonia, 2017-05)
      To answer the question of the influence of prewriting strategies on the academic writing of students with learning disabilities, the most appropriate way is with a research synthesis. The first finding is that all single prewriting strategies examined for both expository and narrative writing are either mnemonic devices (verbally-based) or a form of graphic organizer (visually-based). Both devices guide students through the prewriting process: mnemonic devices also remind students to plan their work, while graphic organizers display a plan for writing. Students with learning disabilities in grades 6 to 9 appear to be influenced most by pre-structured graphic organizers in either paper or computer-based mode. Second is that how prewriting strategies are taught also appears to play a major role in the impact of the strategies, with the most effective form of instruction for both strategies being an explicitly taught direct instruction approach. Third is that the most effective instruction for pairing with a mnemonic device appears to be the Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) approach, while direct instruction of any prewriting strategy improves the writing of students from grades 2 to 9. The fourth finding is that the most effective prewriting strategies for students with learning disabilities appear to be strategies which use a visual or mnemonic device and are taught through direct instruction using a form of self-regulatory instruction, frequently Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD). These four findings will be presented on the internet as professional development in the form of a Prezi intended for educators and reading teachers. [from author's abstract]