• Effectiveness of the Chance Jars Game and Mystery Motivators to reduce disruptive behaviors in minority students living in poverty.

      Stephenson, Jillian K. (2015)
      Disruptive behaviors negatively affect the learning environment by taking time away from academic instruction (McKissick, 2012). Studies have indicated that these behaviors are prevalent in high risk schools, characterized by high rates of poverty among their students (Webster-Stratton, Reid, & Stoolmiller, 2008). Furthermore, 56% of students in high-poverty schools with large minority populations reported that disruptive behavior by other students get in the way of their learning (Webster et al., 2008). The current study examined the effectiveness of the “Chance Jars” game and Mystery Motivators on the disruptive behaviors of minority students living in poverty. The study was conducted in a second grade classroom in a small metropolitan school district in Western New York during afternoon mathematics and listening and learning instruction. Results of the study indicated a mean percent change of -2.6% from the first intervention phase to the second of target student disruptive behaviors during mathematics; only one target student showed a decrease of disruptive behaviors from the first intervention phase to the second during listening and learning (-23.66%). The present study was completed with a mean fidelity score of 94.05%.
    • The effects of mystery motivators on disruptive pupil behavior in a universal pre-kindergarten classroom.

      Digirolamo, Ashley (28/02/2014)
      Studies have shown that the teaching and learning process is being interfered with on a daily basis by disruptive pupil behaviors. In this study, a fifth year teacher, found that circle and story time in her Universal Pre-Kindergarten classroom were being greatly affected by pupil disruption. In response, she examined the effects of a classroom-based intervention called the mystery motivator game, a combination of group contingencies with randomized criteria and unknown rewards, on three specific disruptive behaviors (i.e., talk outs, inappropriate touching, and out of area). Results suggested that the intervention was successful in reducing all three disruptive behaviors to an acceptable level. In fact, the mystery motivator game reduced pupil disruption by 62% overall. Inappropriate touching was impacted the most with an average decrease of 70%. Implications for future research and practices are provided.
    • The effects of randomized group contingencies on disruptive classroom behaviors in an urban school setting.

      Nowicki, Elizabeth (2014)
      Disruptive behaviors have been known to take away from valuable classroom instruction. Researchers have documented the positive effects of group contingencies. This study investigated the effects of group contingencies with randomized components in an urban fourth – grade classroom watching the top disruptive students. Each student was observed on five negative behaviors: inappropriate shout outs, out of seat, disruptive noises, being off task and being disrespectful to classmates. The study incorporated a behavioral intervention known as the Jars Game in which the class worked together to win a mystery motivator. The intervention was set up using a multiphase baseline design (i.e., A-B-A-B design) and results showed that when the Jars Game was in action disruptive behaviors decreased significantly for each student being observed.
    • The Effects of Randomized Group Contingencies on Student Disruptive Behavior in a fourth grade general education classroom.

      Shulman, Sarah (2014)
      A considerable amount of evidence suggests that disruptive classroom behavior interferes with the teaching and learning process. In the present study, a teacher was challenged by high rates of disruptive behavior in her 4th grade classroom during math lessons. In response to the students' disruptive behavior Three Jars, an intervention package consisting of group contingencies with randomized components, on three specific disruptive behaviors (i.e., talk outs. Out of seat, non-compliance), was implemented. Results indicated that the Three Jars intervention produced immediate decreases in the students’ disruptive behaviors. The intervention had the most noticeable impact on student talk-outs. Consumer satisfaction data indicated that students enjoyed math class more with the implementation of Three Jars. Implications for research and further research are discussed.
    • Effects of social stories on non-compliant behavior in pre-school general education setting.

      Baker, Sara (28/02/2014)
      Social stories have been widely used for children diagnosed with autism; however, little research has been conducted on the use of social stories with children in a general education setting who have no diagnosed disabilities. This study investigates the use of social stories with students with no disabilities in a general education preschool classroom at a university based group care center. In this study, social stories were developed and implemented to decrease non-compliant behaviors and increase pro social behaviors of children during clean-up time. Participants included four 3 and 4 year old preschool students. A quantitative experimental design was used to analyze the effects of the social story on an experimental group of two students, compared to a control group of two students. Direct observation and a daily behavioral record were used to tally the number of targeted behaviors each participant demonstrated during clean-up. Results indicated an increase in pro social behaviors and a decrease in non-compliant behaviors for one participant in the experimental group and a decrease in pro social behaviors and an increase in non-compliant behaviors for the other participant in the experimental group. Limitations included a small sample size with a number of outside variables that could have affected the participant’s behaviors.
    • The effects of the Three Jars Game on 9th grade students' academic productivity and social interactions in Spanish II class.

      Palmer, Kelly (12/11/2013)
      Homework is an educational strategy used to improve student understanding of content taught in class. It provides a means for students to further their knowledge through additional, independent practice. Many studies have shown that completing homework correctly has a positive effect on student learning. The problem is that large numbers of students in many classes are not doing their homework and many of those who do complete it incorrectly. The present study showed how the Three Jars intervention package containing group contingencies, small competing teams, and mystery motivators, was used to improve the homework completion, homework accuracy, and decrease negative social behavior rates for a 9th grade Spanish classroom. The Three Jars produced immediate and sustained positive results that improved students’ Spanish homework grades. Intervention effects were replicated across subsequent experimental phases and the teachers and pupils rated intervention goals, procedures, and outcomes quite favorably. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
    • The impact of Classwide Peer Tutoring for students with emotional or behavior disorders.

      Jo, Alex (2015)
      This study investigated how ClassWide Peer Tutoring can be effective for students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders. This research was a quantitative study and followed an A-B-A design, where the first A was the initial baseline observations, B was the ClassWide Peer Tutoring intervention, and the second A was the baseline reintroduced after the intervention was withdrawn. The study was six weeks and each phase of the research design was for two weeks with two observations each week. The study examined data from a single subject participant with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders in an 8th grade mathematics class. Results from this study found on-task behaviors increased while off-task behaviors decreased when ClassWide Peer Tutoring was implemented during intervention. In addition to improved behavior, academic accuracy was better with ClassWide Peer Tutoring. Implications for further research include lengthening the research study to an A-B-A design and examining the differences between student thought incentives and teacher incentives.
    • Professional development for elementary teachers use of group contingencies for behavior management.

      Addison, Danelle (27/10/2012)
      Behavior management in the classroom is an important aspect and pressing issue for teachers. When children are disruptive in the classroom, it is not only a problem for their peers and teacher, but it is the disruptive child who is affected the most, academically and socially. Due to increasing behavior problems in the classroom, teachers need to be better at management [even]. This paper looks at three different types of group-oriented contingencies which are known as independent group-oriented contingencies, dependent group-oriented contingencies and interdependent group-oriented contingencies. There has been much research conducted on group contingencies with the use of randomized reinforcers aimed at decreasing inappropriate behaviors. Of these group-oriented contingency interventions, interdependent group contingencies were found to be utilized more in a classroom environment. This project presents a review of the literature on the use of randomized reinforcers, also referred to mystery motivators in this paper, with the group contingencies and their effectiveness. These interventions have been proven to be practical, efficient and economical to use for teachers addressing a target behavior. The focus of this project is a professional development plan for teachers interested in using group contingencies with randomized reinforcers in their classrooms.