Recent Submissions

  • Gender Equality is a Maritime Issue: Examining Structural and Social Barriers to Closing the Gender Gap in the Maritime Industry.

    McCarthy, Cornelia; Ryals, Jessica (2023-04-28)
    The past 30 years have seen an increase of women working in the maritime industry. However, the number of women in the global seafaring workforce remains low: only 2%. This paper seeks to evaluate the cultural, social, and institutional barriers to gender equality in the maritime industry, specifically those barriers which cause women to leave the maritime profession, examining the career limitations, harassment, and professional devaluation faced by women in the maritime industry. This paper bridges the gap in literature related to women in maritime by presenting the personal perceptions and experiences of what it is like to be a gender minority (female) in the maritime industry through personal interviews with 24 women in the maritime industry. These interviews offer in-depth insights to women’s personal experiences to understand what it is like to be a woman in a male dominated industry. This research finds that the barriers to equality in maritime are both structural and social. There are barriers to women entering the maritime workforce in gender bias in the education system, social acceptance of women in seafaring roles, and maritime hiring practices. Barriers to retention of women in maritime are discrimination, harassment, physical facilities on ships, and the roles of women in society and their families. Taking steps to remove the structural barriers women face in choosing and maintaining a seafaring career would have cascading impacts on attracting women to maritime and retaining them through their careers, which in turn would have cascading impacts on the cultural barriers.
  • Decarbonization Of Shipping

    Kyteas, Demetrios (2022-12-16)
    The main goal of this Thesis is to analyze the modern and critical issue of shipping decarbonization providing an analytic approach on crucial questions which affect the global shipping nowadays. According to recent studies, the maritime industry is accountable for more than 85% of the world’s trade. At the same time, it consumes 2% of the world’s energy demand, adding 3% to the overall Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Based on these numbers, it can be said that the industry is one of the most energy advanced and efficient industries, but in parallel particularly harmful for the environment. It has been legislated by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) that, until 2050 the air emissions of the industry must have been reduced by 50% compared to 2008. Since early 2020, the so-called Sulphur cap has been activated, which dictates that sulphur-based emissions should be reduced to 0.5%. In order to achieve the IMO goals various pathways have been developed, of which the most common are speed reduction (slow steaming), scrubbers’ installation and Low Sulphur Fuel Oils (LSFO). Nevertheless, the long-term studies agree that in order to achieve the IMO goals, the industry should move towards new alternative fuels, emitting lower or zero harmful gases. Based on these facts, this Thesis will try to provide a critical overview of the current state of the maritime field and its contribution to the world’s trade and economy, emphasizing on the global shipping. IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee applied the MEPC regulations 75, 76 and 77 on June 2021, building on Energy Efficient Existing Ship Index for existing ships and Energy Efficient Design Index for new buildings (came into force since 2013). In addition, IMO has also adopter the Carbon Intensity Indicator (CII) which basically requires specific goals on vessels for reducing their carbon operational emissions (came into force on January 1st 2023). All these measures are indicated in MARPOL Annex VI – Ship Decarbonization as per IMO regulations.
  • Federal Oversight of the America's Marine Highway Program in Response to the Mandates of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007

    Yahalom, Shmuel; Smith, Brian D (2022-04)
    The America’s Marine Highway Program is an initiative that seeks to ease traffic congestion in landside transportation corridors by moving freight from those highways and railroads to waterborne vessels that travel on nearby rivers and coasts. The program markets itself as an ambitious, national-scale initiative that seeks to drive economic growth and improve quality of life. Its genesis, however, is a three-page section of a 310-page Congressional act that provided for no funding and little oversight. Given this juxtaposition of good intentions and bureaucratic constraints, this paper will examine the historical context for commercial use of the nation’s inland waterway system, analyze the objectives and mechanics of the program in its current state, explore the government’s legal basis for engaging in such activities, and make specific recommendations for the program going forward.
  • The justification for federal assistance in emerging United States surface freight transportation modes: the case for America's Marine Highways

    Yahalom, Shmuel; Jorgenson, James G. (2021-04)
    The United States Department of Transportation (DOT) and Maritime Administration (MARAD) developed America’s Marine Highway Program to minimize congested surface transportation conditions. A decade after its implementation, America’s Marine Highway Program continues to be an emerging freight transportation alternative. Historically, emerging United States surface freight transportation modes, i.e., the first transcontinental railroad and the Interstate Highway System, received legislation that appropriated significant levels of federal assistance during their nascent stage due to their high social rate of return; a high social rate of return was determined to range from 20 to 30 percent. This study argues that the justification for federal assistance in emerging United States surface freight transportation modes is based on their respective social rate of return. This study defends that the positive externalities associated with America’s Marine Highway Program, i.e., the social rate of return, justifies a similar level of initial federal startup support based on its benefits to United States national security.
  • Maritime Cyber Risk Management Process: Case for American Liquefied Gas Carrier

    Howard, Dr. Lawrence A.; Ahlstrom, Captain Joseph; Gu, JaHun (2021-04)
    The entwinement of shipboard traditional and cyber assets and the unique and potentially severe hazards of a liquefied gas carrier necessitate the need of the robust implementation of a shipboard cyber risk management process. Academic research on maritime cyber risk management lack an empirical research on a shipboard system in operation and a broader coverage of regulatory and commercial insights in formulating such process. This thesis aims to propose a shipboard cyber risk management process with broader technological, regulatory, and commercial perspectives in the maritime transportation of liquefied gas cargo. Case study methodology is applied to describe the formulation and implementation of a shipboard cyber risk management process. Interpretive data collection is conducted to identify and review key stakeholders on the cyber risk management of American liquefied gas carriers and their relevant resources. A baseline of references is proposed to formulate a shipboard cyber risk management process. For this purpose, the cyberspace and vulnerabilities of the maritime industry is reviewed to identify considerations originating from a cyber environment, the maritime industry, and a vessel. Case study was conducted by reviewing documents and observing a cargo handling system commissioned on a liquefied petroleum gas carrier in operation. Asset-based risk assessment is conducted to determine quantitative risk impact value of and cyber threats to critical equipment. The study demonstrates how the integration of traditional and cyber assets in a cargo handling system introduce cyber threats and aggravate physical threats. Results demonstrates how existing company and shipboard practices can be enhanced to improve shipboard cyber resilience.
  • Residual Fuel Oil Market: Risks and Opportunities for the Maritime Sector

    Stetson, Erika Renee (2020-10-12)
    The Transportation Sector, and by extension, public and private oceangoing shipping, is on track to become effectively the only remaining consumer of residual fuel oil (RFO) over the next several years in the United States. This work examines this changing demand and analyzes implications for the shipping industry and refiners. It develops an RFO demand prediction model using multiple regression. It also makes recommendations for increasing efficiency in the marine bunkering supply chain - improving corporate efficiency is one approach to managing cost and risk in this changing marketplace.
  • COVID-19 and the Fate of the Cruise Industry: A Holistic Answer to Regaining the Public's Trust

    Petrizzo, Dominick Jr (2020-08-23)
    The cruise industry is facing a challenge that has never been seen before. The COVID-19 Pandemic has crippled a market that has been steadily growing for decades and, before this, showed no end in sight. As cruise lines halt operations, hemorrhage money, and call for loans just to stay in business, there also must be a complete shift in how these companies operate and vessels run in order to ensure viability. The general public has understood the risks of cruising since its inception, but this new era of uncommon hazards is changing their view to second guess safety and practicability of a vacation at sea. Patterns have begun to emerge where ship size, itinerary, common areas, and space ratios have all played an integral role in the spread of this pandemic onboard ships. Indications from the public have shown that they have little knowledge of how ships work and focus more on assumptions and grouping companies as a collective when assessing how safe the cruise market is. Since cruise companies tend to be merged together in the public's mind due to lack of understanding, the market as a whole needs to implement new strategies that are clearly visible to the public now and hidden from public view later on in order to create and maintain consumer confidence. The companies need to form a holistic approach to combat this spread and regain control of their industry. Presented in this thesis is evidence of a changing cruise industry landscape and strategies to better safeguard the market from the likelihood of this happening in the future. Additional research after implementation of the industry's new operating structures would be beneficial to improve on these findings.
  • Analysis of the "Additive Increase Multiplicative Decrease" Model for Congestion Avoidance

    Gaylan, John; Maheshwari, Surabhi; Whitener, Andrew (2017-04-27)
    As technology advances, network congestion avoidance becomes increasingly more important. For this project, we attempted to analyze and optimize the Additive Increase, Multiplicative Decrease (AIMD) algorithm to gather data for our partner company. We created our own AIMD models and ran simulations to find and compare relevant data.
  • A Study on the Northern Sea Route and its Economic Feasibility

    Bouchalis, Niki (2017-04)
    Future predictions support that Suez Canal will not be able to compensate the increasing size of ships that are used for trade between Asia and Europe. Relevant studies (Verny & Grigentin, 2009) also indicate that the economic growth of China is moving from the Southeast to the North. Therefore, alternative routes need to be considered in order to minimize transportation costs and satisfy demand of the traded containerized products between Northern Europe and Northern China. One of those alternative routes is considered to be Northern Sea Route (NSR). This research paper, thus, examines the economic feasibility of this route taking into account both the advantages and disadvantages that this route has to offer.