• The Effects of Marketing on Commercial Banks’ Operating Businesses and Profitability: Evidence from US Bank Holding Companies

      Chen, Kai (Emerald Publishing, 2020-04)
      Purpose: This paper aims to explore the role that marketing plays in commercial bank management. Specifically, we examine the effects of marketing activities on banks' operating businesses, i.e. deposit, loan and service businesses. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of marketing activities on bank profitability. Design/methodology/approach: A series of hypotheses about the associations of marketing activities with banks' deposits, loans, services and profitability are developed. The fixed-effects linear model with an AR (1) disturbance is applied on the panel dataset of FR Y-9C reports to test these hypotheses. Findings: The results show that total loans and service proceeds are positively associated with marketing activities, which is measured by banks' advertising and marketing expenses. The effects of marketing activities on loan and service businesses are far-reaching to the second quarter in future. Moreover, the results reveal that profitability, measured as net income over total assets, increases with marketing activities. Practical implications: From the findings of this study, bank managers can learn the strengths and weaknesses of their marketing strategies and therefore better coordinate the marketing resources used in different areas of business. The study provides bank managers with a direction to examine the weaknesses in their marketing management. Originality/value: An issue in bank marketing that has not been explored yet is whether and how marketing activities affect commercial banks' specific businesses, such as deposits, loans and services, and how improvements in the specific businesses further affect bank profitability. This study is the first one to address this fundamental issue in bank marketing. Furthermore, the study provides the supplementary evidence that marketing contributes to commercial banks' profitability.
    • The Dutch Atlantic world, 1585–1815: Recent themes and developments in the field

      Noorlander, Danny (Wiley, 2020-08)
      Scholarship on the Dutch Atlantic has grown and changed a lot in 30 years, with older themes like colonial weakness and insignificance giving way to a newly discovered Dutch vitality. This essay demonstrates the change by summarizing the recent research and highlighting the military, economic, and cultural impact of the Dutch in West Africa and America, plus the possible impacts of both places on the Dutch in Europe. The essay also cautions writers against taking arguments about dynamism, diversity, tolerance, cosmopolitanism, and modernity too far.
    • Estimating the Discount Rate of S&P 500 Portfolio With Cointegration Analysis

      Chen, Kai; Marcus, Richard D. (North American Business Press, 2020-11)
      Using cointegration analysis, this paper examines the evolution of the discount rate of S&P 500 portfolio from 1926 to 2019. By estimating on a 30-year time window moving over time, we find that the discount rate has gradually become significantly smaller. The results suggest that capital cost in the U.S. stock market, represented by the discount rate of S&P 500 portfolio, has been declining as time goes by, which implies that the U.S. stock market has become more informative and efficient, since the risk of a stock, which determines its capital cost, is associated with the stock’s asymmetric information.
    • Doublespeak: Louisa Jacobs, the American Equal Rights Association, and Complicating Racism in the Early US Women’s Suffrage Movement

      Goodier, Susan (Cornell Press, 2021)
      Members of the U.S. women’s suffrage movement, usually noted as being from the 1840s to the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920, faced many struggles related to race from the outset. Periods of close collaboration between Black and white activists have been punctuated by longer periods with virtually no cooperation between them. Turning our attention to Lou- isa Jacobs, the daughter of the once-enslaved Harriet Jacobs (author of Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl), helps us unpack racial cooperation—and the lack thereof—in the years immediately following the Civil War.
    • Freedom Courts: An Analysis of Black Women’s Divorce in Attala County During Mississippi’s Anti-Divorce Campaign, 1890–1940

      Ashford, Evan Howard (University of BolognaInter-university Consortium for the Study of Euro-American History and Politics (CISPEA), 2021-03)
      The essay argues that divorce, as a legal maneuver, provided Black women with the opportunity tochallenge oppression within the household while simultaneously pushing back against broader ef-forts to curtail access to divorce. Framed within the New Negro Era, the article analyzes the compet-ing realities of divorce as both a racialized political issue and an internal struggle for independence.Utilizing newspapers and divorce petitions, the article captures how divorce gave Black women avoice and a platform in which they could declare independence in a society that was historicallyknown for its suppression of African Americans.