Now showing items 21-40 of 254

    • Comparison of Invasive Mussels in Otsego Lake, NY

      Ackley, Madelynn; Ligouri, Erika; Smith, Riley; Stickney, Sierra; Minissale, Kari (2023)
      Invasive mussels, quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis) and zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), were collected from Otsego Lake, NY throughout most of 2021. Zebra mussels were first introduced to the lake in 2008 and were able to establish themselves prior to the introduction of quagga mussels in 2019. These mussels disrupt the lake ecosystem and are associated with harmful cyanobacterial blooms. We were interested in tracking how the new invader, quagga mussels, established itself and competed with the earlier invader, zebra mussels. Using mussel sampler plates, we aimed to evaluate the survival and development of the quagga and zebra mussels on new substrates. Plate samplers were placed at three different depths, 7.62 meters (25 feet), 12.19 meters th (40 feet), and 21.34 meters (70 feet). The plates were deployed on June 17 , 2021, and retrieved on th October 17 , 2021. The mussels were then scraped off each the plates and washed with lake water over a mesh net to collect any smaller mussels that might have fallen off. They were placed in 70% ethanol and then brought back to the lab to be identified, sized, and aged. The data will then be used to determine if one species is outcompeting the other species within the lake. The previous wintertime sample set from this study showed that the quagga mussels were outcompeting the zebra mussels over the winter. This set of samples is from the summer time to see if the quagga mussels are still outcompeting zebra mussels. Overall, the quagga mussels are in greater densities than the zebra mussels at all three depths for this sample set, with the greatest difference in the deepest depth. The average age of the quagga mussels was younger than the zebra mussels, and the average length of the quagga mussels collected were smaller than that of the zebra mussels.
    • The Gender Wage Gap: Through the Industries

      Colombo, Katelyn (2023)
      Since the 1860s, research has been shown a difference in wages for men and women who are doing the same work which this started the gender wage gap. In 2022, women earned a average of 82 percentage of what men earned which is higher from the 60 percent in the 1950s. This paper examines the difference in jobs for men and women in which there is a gender difference in wage. Using the Consumer Price Index (CPS) data from 2015-2021, I will show what industries have the largest and smallest gender wage gap. I affect that happened in this sample period was Covid in which it is shown that both genders had worked less hours than previous years but also shown that males work more hours than females. With the change in gender roles through history, women have become more educated than men. Things that can affect the wage gap are age, experience, education, Marial status, race, and number of children. The results show which industries/occupations that have a bigger wage gap in gender differences.
    • Estimating the Impact of Attendance at MLB Games on Local Air Pollution

      Grogan, Joseph (2023)
      Baseball games draw tens of thousands of fans to a single stadium on game days. These individuals have different means of getting to the venue, but one of the most popular methods is using personal vehicles. These vehicles are known to produce many pollutants, including nitrogen oxides and certain volatile organic compounds that create ozone if they react in the air. This paper studies the impacts of Major League Baseball attendances on ozone Air Quality Index values between 2010 and 2019 in the 28 American cities that host MLB teams. I follow Locke (2019), who found a statistically significant but negligible link between MLB attendance and ozone. I test the robustness of this result by including three additional years’ worth of data as well as control variables for NBA and NHL games occurring in the same city on the same day, which could account for some of the additional ozone observed.
    • Nutrition Education for Students with Developmental Disabilities

      Hoy, Emily; Hunt, Joshua; Vilbrin, Renee; Lanner, Traci (2023)
      Nutrition education is an important component for students of all ages, as it can assist in living a healthy lifestyle once outside of school. In an educational setting, finding ways to resonate with students and identifying whether the nutrition intervention worked is complicated. In this research, a needs assessment was conducted to discover nutrition problems in the given population. Two nutrition problems were identified, and nutrition interventions of handwashing and portion control education were implemented to properly educate 4 non-verbal, non-reading, non-writing high school- aged students ages 16-19. Methods selected for this nutrition education session were an interactive handwashing demonstration, and an interactive portion control food demonstration, measured by observational pre- and post-tests which analyzed the immediate success of the intervention. The outcome results indicated 75% (n=4) of students showed improvement in handwashing practices after the intervention, with an average length of handwashing duration increasing by 13.85 seconds. Results also showed 66.7% (n=3) of students were able to correctly portion meals post intervention, yet 75% of students still consumed inappropriate portions post intervention. The results suggest that in the population studied, interactive nutrition education interventions have a positive impact on nutrition education and intervention outcomes. However, this project was not free of limitations; as the sample size was very small (n=4). Further research is needed to identify the potential for success in using this method with a larger sample sized classroom with similar demographics to this population.
    • The Impact of Water Infrastructure on Refugee Populations Globally

      Smith, Emma (2023)
      Often a scarcity of resources can be linked to migration, and access to water and its surrounding infrastructure has become increasingly scarce. Water deficits impact an area's agriculture, economy, and population. It acts as a push and pulls factor for migration. Looking at a lack of water and its infrastructure, one could start to understand migration patterns and explore water infrastructure's impact and significance on migration. The UN is aware of these issues and has provided access to safe water for areas with less access to water, but is this enough? Analysis shows that the continuing lack of water infrastructure impact migration and can shift the demographics of an area. The results show how these factors still significantly impact the refugee population and the movement of people in and out of certain areas. Improving the infrastructure for water would increase countries' economic growth and poverty reduction as well as increase overall global health.
    • Challenges of Reservoir Sedimentation and Public Policy: What the sedimentary record can teach us and how to communicate the findings to the public and stakeholders.

      Gonzalez, Stephany (2023)
      Dams are historically essential for supplying drinking water, energy, and flood mitigation on the global, regional, and local levels and therefore are useful, however, they have a finite life span. Sedimentation rates in reservoirs around the world appear to be increasing with climate change. Increased sedimentation limits the dams from being used effectively as designed. The loss of efficiency causes a decrease in water storage and floodplain levels rising leading to higher needs for flood mitigation. Governments have reacted differently to the problems, deploying a variety of methods. In this study, we use one of the 173 documented dams in Otsego County, NY found in the City of Oneonta's watershed. The focus is on the sustainability of the city drinking water source, sedimentation rates, and communicating the problems and results to the stakeholders. While the reservoir was draining sediment cores were collected using manual and Vibracors techniques, and sediment profiling. Coring produced 101 cm of a useable section which bottomed out in a coarse gravel layer while the Vibrasors had a recovery rate of 68%. These cores were augmented by a 1.5 m sediment core collected from a stream bank downcutting through the lake sediments. The cores document a sequence of alternating layers of clay, silty clay, silty clay rich in organics, and gravel. The sequence of lake sediments is interpreted to show sedimentation is driven by high precipitation, and snow melt flows events during fall and spring. Also, organics appear to be concentrated towards the top of most sections, possibly showing an increase in organics during flooding events. The local dams are insignificant compared to dams worldwide but may yet pose significant problems locally and downstream. Finally, we summarize lessons learned from current and past research so the information can be incorporated into a more informed decision-making process and effectively communicated to the public and stakeholders.
    • Are Yellow Spots a “Red Flag”? Testing the Potential Deterrence of Nocturnal Mammalian Predators of the Spotted Salamander, Ambystoma maculatum.

      Nicolaides, Amanda; Canales Mendoza, Velkys; Graziano, Sarina; Bastiaans, Elizabeth (2023)
      Aposematism is an evolutionary tactic used by animals across many phyla in which they display bright colors, distinctive patterns, or other features to warn predators of their potential threats, such as toxins. Studies have shown that predators of aposematic organisms learn to recognize their warning signals, so aposematic signals reduce predation risk. The vertebrate class Amphibia includes many species with toxic or distasteful skin secretions that also possess aposematic characteristics. For example, Ambystoma maculatum, the spotted salamander, has 2 lines of bright, yellow, or sometimes cream-colored spots on their dorsal side against a black or blue-black blue body. Although spotted salamanders have been described as aposematic, few studies test if their color pattern induces predator avoidance, as predicted for an aposematic trait. For this study we used clay models, a common method for testing predator responses to variation in prey coloration, to determine whether nocturnal mammalian predators preferentially avoid the color pattern of the spotted salamander.
    • Overwintering Site Selection of Nicrophorus orbicollis Say in New York (Coleoptera: Silphidae)

      Pipino, John (2023)
      We consider overwintering site selection a factor that will affect the post release viability of the Endangered Nicrophorus americanus Oliver (American Burying Beetle) from Block Island, Rhodes Island, back to New York. Through use of the congener most closely related to American Burying Beetle, Nicrophorus orbicollis Say, we conducted a laboratory olfactometer study comparing two populations of the surrogate species aimed to detect significant differences in frequency of choice between them when acclimated to overwintering conditions. When presented with four choices: leaf litter from a mixed hardwood forest, forest soil, Peromyscus species nesting material, and a blank control, we found there is no significant evidence that there is a difference in choice between a population of Nicrophorus orbicollis indigenous to NY and a population from Block Island, RI. These results may suggest that the conservation of current overwintering habitats in NY are more appropriate than the development of habitat related to that of Block Island, RI.
    • Thermal acclimation across the active season of wild, free-living eastern red-backed salamanders

      Jones, Richard; Mangual, Bryanna; Hall, Samantha; Gomez, Alexandra; Nicolaides, Amanda; Tichy, Louise; Dubuisson, Keesha (2023)
      Rising global temperatures due to climate change pose a threat to a wide variety of organisms, but ectotherms such as amphibians may be particularly vulnerable. This group possesses a range of temperatures that they can withstand and remain behaviorally and reproductively active. With this study, we investigated whether the eastern red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus, becomes acclimated to changing temperatures throughout its active seasons. The critical thermal maximum, CTmax, and critical thermal minimum, CTmin, of the eastern red-backed salamander were determined under field conditions over several months in the spring and fall to determine any changes over this time period. Results of the study show that there was a significant effect of day of the year on the critical thermal maximum of the salamanders but not on the critical thermal minimum. It was also found that snout-vent length, SVL, had a significant effect on the critical thermal minimum but not on the critical thermal maximum of individuals.
    • Indigenous Communities and Water Pollution: A Case Study in Environmental Injustice

      Lascell, Wendy; Taylor, Mia (2022)
      Sustainable development goals are meant to be inclusive of all population groups. In the United States, Indigenous peoples have historically been discriminated against creating an environmental injustice. Access to clean water is a basic human right and there are long-term health effects that occur due to water pollution. Infrastructure failures in the United States contribute to the lack of access to clean water on Indigenous lands. This study examines the infrastructure failures and environmental pollution that led to the lack of access of clean water on Indigenous lands. Analysis of publicly available spatial data in GIS is expected to show a direct correlation between higher levels of water pollution and location of the Indigenous communities. These findings will likely show that there are higher levels of water pollution on Native American Reservations and consequent health effects. Examining GIS spatial data and creating a map pertaining to this issue will help create a visualization of these findings. Solving this wicked problem of environmental racism is challenging and sometimes seems insurmountable. This study will contribute a small brick in building a path of sustainable development for all people.
    • Assessing The Effectiveness of a Self-Efficacy and Dissonance-Based Intervention on the Nutrition Knowledge and Acceptance of Nutrition Misconceptions of 8th Grade Students

      Boudreau, Allie (SUNY Oneonta, 2023)
      Background: Disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, nutrition-related knowledge deficits, and high acceptance rates of nutrition related misinformation concerning harmful weight control behaviors and attitudes are extremely prevalent among adolescents. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of a self-efficacy and dissonance-based intervention that incorporates the principles of intuitive eating in improving nutrition related knowledge and skills, and in reducing the acceptance of nutrition misinformation related to harmful disordered eating and weight control attitudes. Methods: A quasi-experimental design study and pre/post-intervention assessments were used to measure the effectiveness of a 3-session self-efficacy and dissonance- based intervention program in improving the nutrition related knowledge and skills, and in reducing the acceptance of nutrition misconceptions related to harmful weight control behaviors and attitudes of 8th grade physical education (PE) students (n=4) voluntarily participating in the fitness unit. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to assess for significant changes in nutrition-related knowledge/skills and the acceptance of nutrition related misconceptions. Results: The intervention did not yield statistically significant improvements innutrition- related knowledge/skills or significant reductions in the acceptance of nutrition misconceptions related to harmful disordered eating and weight control attitudes. Conclusion: The discrepancies between the findings of the current study and prior studies regarding of the effectiveness of the intervention’s theoretical framework in eliciting improvements in nutrition knowledge, skills, and attitudes related to disordered eating, may suggest that the current study’s exposure times were insufficient, and the sample size was too small to determine statistical significance.
    • Air Quality and Environmental Injustice in Detroit, Michigan

      Lascell, Wendy; Kammer, Karen (2022)
      Detroit, Michigan suffers from environmental injustice of air quality, disproportionally burdening neighborhoods with lower income and/or higher numbers of minority populations. Higher rates of pollutants leads to higher rates of lung ailments (e.g. asthma) and brain development problems in children. Using GIS maps disparities in air quality are mapped across the city of Detroit. Factors analyzed include demographic data (i.e. income levels and racial data), air quality index numbers, and particulate matter less than 2.5 ug/m3 (PM2.5). Publicly sourced data was collected between January 2022 and March 2022 for several locations within the city of Detroit. The data was then averaged and mapped in GIS. Further analysis examines socioeconomic factors to identify patterns and correlations. Environmental injustice is an identified problem globally which needs to be addressed on a smaller scale to achieve sustainable development goals.
    • Evaluating Effectiveness of an Intervention Designed to Improve Nutrition Knowledge in Fruit and Vegetable Prescription Program Participants

      Ormsby, Shayla R. (SUNY Oneonta, 2023)
      Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of individualized nutrition education handouts specific to participants’ chronic condition(s) on increasing knowledge. Design: Quasi-experimental Methods: Pre-intervention and post-intervention data assessing nutrition knowledge was compared and analyzed using a paired t-test(p < 0.05) and chi square test. Setting: The intervention took place at Cornell Cooperative Extension of Jefferson County in Watertown, New York. Intervention: The intervention consisted of customizing nutrition/dietary handouts to three chronic condition diet orders that participants were diagnosed with prior to the study for the purpose of increasing nutrition knowledge. The diets were diabetic, low-fat/low-cholesterol, and sodium. Results: The intervention did not generate statistically significant results for the quantitative data, however, improvements in knowledge were demonstrated through qualitative data. Change in knowledge and understanding about following dietary restrictions recommended for a chronic condition, participant’s confidence in their ability to identify appropriate recipes, ability to alter a recipe with healthy substitutions, and prepare meals suitable their diagnoses, and grocery shopping behavior did not have significant results after the intervention. Conclusions & Implications: Nutrition/dietary informational handouts are not a statistically significant intervention for the set study duration. A larger sample size and longer intervention period is needed to determine the effectiveness of the planned intervention.
    • Back to Back: The Co-occurrence of DISH and Ankylosing Spondylitis from Early Modern Poland

      Betsinger, Tracy K.; Scott, Amy B. (Elsevier, 2023)
      Objective: This case study evaluates an individual with skeletal changes consistent with DISH and ankylosing spondylitis. We present here an evaluation of the individual’s pathological skeletal changes and a review of the potential diagnoses. Finally, we offer a differential diagnosis of co-morbidity infrequently found in the paleopathological record. Materials: The skeletal remains of a male, aged 50 + years from the early modern Polish (17th-18th century CE) site of Drawsko 1. Methods: Skeletal remains were examined for the presence of spondyloarthropathies. Results: The individual presented with anterolateral fusion of the vertebral bodies of T6-T10 with a “dripping candle wax” appearance, fusion of the right costovertebral joint at rib 8, fusion of the left apophyseal joints of T8-T10, and the calcification of the supraspinous ligament at T3-T4. The left sacroiliac joint shows intra-articular and para-articular fusion; the right has bony changes consistent with ongoing fusion. Entheseal reactions were noted on the left clavicle, scapulae, first metacarpals, ulnae, and humerii. Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), reactive arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PA), and enteropathic arthritis (EA) are considered as differential diagnoses. Conclusions: Based on the skeletal pattern of involvement, the individual suffered from both DISH and AS, which has previously been reported once in the paleopathological literature since 1950. The clinical literature indicates that co-occurrence of these two conditions is possible, with approximately 40 individuals affected. Significance: This case study is significant for demonstrating the co-occurrence of DISH and AS in the paleopathological record. Additionally, this case contributes to the understanding of heterogenous frailty and syndemics. Limitations: No radiographs were taken to confirm the differential diagnosis. No aDNA analysis was conducted. Suggestions for further research: The remains have been reburied; no further analysis is possible.
    • Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Balanced Plate Intervention

      Snow, Cassandra (2023-04)
      Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of 3 educational sessions on nutrition knowledge and behavior in a virtual Facebook group run by a Registered Dietitian. Design: Quasi-experimental design Methods: Three educational sessions were created based on the needs of the Nourished with Emily Facebook group members. Pre and post-tests were used to determine a difference in knowledge before and after the intervention. Behavior change was also evaluated in participants. Setting: Virtual; Zoom Participants: Women who are between the ages of 25-55, live across the United States, and are employed who are members of the Nourished with Emily Facebook group. Intervention: A pre-test was sent out to those that signed up before the intervention. A zoom link was sent to all participants who signed up. The 3educational sessions were based off the areas on the needs assessment survey that were answered incorrectly by most participants. A post-test was sent to participants after the final educational session as well as another post-test one week later. Results: There was no significant difference between the mean total scores of the pre and post-tests. There was also no significance difference in the qualitative data found on the pre and post-tests. However, it was seen that the participants reported that they did apply the information they learned from the intervention on post-test that was sent out 1 week after the last session. Conclusions and Implications: The 3 educational sessions were not effective in significantly increasing nutrition knowledge in this virtual population. These findings reject the authors’ hypothesis that the educational sessions would increase knowledge of the participants.
    • Wonder

      Heminway, August (SUNY Oneonta Art Galleries, 2022)
      Black and White Inkjet Print Photograph,24 1/4 x 18 1/4in. Exhibited as part of the 2022 A Rural Devotion show at SUNY Oneonta’s Art Galleries
    • Uniform

      Heminway, August (SUNY Oneonta Art Galleries, 2022)
      Black and White Inkjet Print Photograph,18 1/4 x 24 1/4in. Exhibited as part of the 2022 A Rural Devotion show at SUNY Oneonta’s Art Galleries
    • Stoic Devotion

      Heminway, August (SUNY Oneonta Art Galleries, 2022)
      Black and White Inkjet Print Photograph,24 1/4 x 18 1/4in. Exhibited as part of the 2022 A Rural Devotion show at SUNY Oneonta’s Art Galleries
    • Routine

      Heminway, August (SUNY Oneonta Art Galleries, 2022)
    • Lifeline

      Heminway, August (SUNY Oneonta Art Galleries, 2022)
      Black and White Inkjet Print Photograph,18 1/4 x 24 1/4in. Exhibited as part of the 2022 A Rural Devotion show at SUNY Oneonta’s Art Galleries