Now showing items 1-20 of 156

    • The Evil Corporation Trope: An Analysis of Popular Science-Fiction Films

      Poerio, Michael A. (2022)
      Popular culture in general, and movies in particular, are one of the major influences on the public’s perception of science, and therefore on the level of trust audiences feel inclined to put in science. The science communication community has made great progress in achieving that the portrayal of scientists in movies does better justice to the diverse reality of scientific research, moving away from the stereotype of the old white male scientist. This has been achieved through constructive collaborations like the National Academy of Science’s Science and Entertainment Exchange. However, a prevalent trope, which we call “The Evil Corporation Trope”, has been repeatedly used in science-fiction films. Following David Kirby’s framework of cinema as a “virtual witnessing technology” that allows publics to immerse themselves in possible futures or inaccessible realities and experience what their perceptions and reactions would be, we present an analysis of this trope in several major science-fiction films, spanning nearly forty-years of cinema. If the reality that audiences virtually witness in these blockbuster movies systematically portrays science or tech companies as the antagonist and the source of all evil – is it surprising that trust in science is heavily undermined when it is such big corporations who, for example, develop and distribute the covid vaccines, or vaccines in general? My analysis includes the identification of patterns found within films using this trope, including corporations in these movies with ties to the military, and abuses of artificial intelligence.
    • Prepare, partner, protest, propose, and persevere: Advocating for a dedicated information literacy classroom

      Hendley, Michelle (2020-10-02)
      In 2011, SUNY Oneonta began planning for the partial renovation of the James M. Milne Library to accommodate three offices and their staff: the tutoring center, accessibility resources office, and the faculty center. In the initial planning stages, there was no discussion of the inclusion of dedicated information literacy classrooms.
    • Communicating Climate Change Impacts through Crochet

      Allen, Ashley; Hoyte, Brianna (2022)
      As climate change is causing an increase in natural hazard events across the United States, special attention must be paid to the impacts these events have on citizens, particularly those in marginalized or vulnerable communities. In New York, increases in extreme precipitation events in both winter and spring have the capacity to impact a wide range of citizens in different ways. I recognized the increasing frequency of these events through data review and comparison from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the National Weather Service. The aim of this project is to use crochet to understand and represent the difference in experience that different residents of New York face when dealing with natural hazards and disaster events related to climate change. In order to do this, I planned out an imperfectly mirrored scene of the aftermath of a disaster, while making sure to include many of the effects these precipitation events have on different socioeconomic communities. By using crochet to set the scene literally and figuratively, I can use my art to communicate the impacts of New York’s changing climate while also depicting environmental justice issues in a way that non-scientists can engage with and understand.
    • The crowding-out effect of tobacco expenditure on household spending patterns in Bangladesh

      Husain, Muhammad Jami; Datta, Biplab Kumar; Virk-Baker, Mandeep; Parascandola, Mark; Khondker, Bazlul Haque (PLOS, 2018-10)
      Background: Tobacco consumption constitutes a sizable portion of household consumption expenditure, which can lead to reduced expenditures on other basic commodities. This is known as the crowding-out effect. This study analyzes the crowding-out effect of tobacco consumption in Bangladesh, and the research findings have relevance for strengthening the tobacco control for improving health and well-being. Methods: We analyzed data from the Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2010 to examine the differences in consumption expenditure pattern between tobacco user and non-user households. We further categorize tobacco user households in three mutually exclusive groups of smoking-only, smokeless-only, and dual (both smoking and smokeless); and investigated the crowding-out effects for these subgroups. We compared the mean expenditure shares of different types of households, and then estimated the conditional Engel curves for various expenditure categories using Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) method. Crowding-out was considered to have occurred if estimated coefficient of the tobacco use indicator was negative and statistically significant. Results: We find that tobacco user households on average allocated less in clothing, housing, education, energy, and transportation and communication compared to tobacco non-user households. The SUR estimates also confirmed crowding-out in these consumption categories. Mean expenditure share of food and medical expenditure of tobacco user households, however, are greater than those of tobacco non-user households. Albeit similar patterns observed for different tobacco user households, there were differences in magnitudes depending on the type of tobacco-use, rural-urban locations and economic status. Conclusion: Policy measures that reduce tobacco use could reduce displacement of commodities by households with tobacco users, including those commodities that can contribute to human capital investments.
    • Role of Phytoestrogens in Cancer Therapy

      Virk-Baker, Mandeep; Nagy, Tim R.; Barnes, Stephen (Theime Medical Publishers, 2010)
      Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, and the numbers of new cancer cases are expected to continue to rise. The main goals of cancer therapy include removing the primary tumor, preventing the spread of distant metastases, and improving survival and quality of life for the patients. To attain these goals of cancer therapy, the combination of different chemotherapeutics, as opposed to the conventional single-agent treatment, is an emerging area of research. Given the potential risks of drug toxicity in such treatment, the focus is to have a second compound that increases the anticancer potential of the primary agent but which reduces toxicity. There is an ever growing interest in treatment with natural compounds, such as plant phytoestrogens, as an adjuvant cancer therapy along with conventional cancer therapy. The question remains whether or not adding these compounds to the cancer therapy regimen as a second agent would be beneficial, and if they are safe to be used among cancer patients. The current literature suggests that phytoestrogen treatment is capable of inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest in a number of cancer cell lines, as well as upregulating cell cycle inhibitory molecules. Phytoestrogen therapy has been shown to inhibit inflammation, angiogenesis and metastases in various in vivo tumor models, and pronounced benefits have been observed when combined with radiation therapy. The lack of side effects from phase I and II clinical trials of phytoestrogens in cancer therapy points towards their safety, but to further understand their added benefit clinical studies with large sample sizes are required. We have reviewed the recent research studies in these areas in an attempt to find evidence for their role in cancer therapy as well as safety.
    • Comparative analysis of diet and tobacco use among households in Bangladesh

      Virk-Baker, Mandeep; Husain, Muhammad Jami; Parascandola, Mark (European Publishing, 2019-03)
      Introduction: While studies from developed countries have reported dietary differences between tobacco users and non-users, less is known about the influence of tobacco on diet in developing countries where malnutrition is a major public health challenge. Methods: In this study we used the nationally representative Household Income Expenditure Survey 2010 from Bangladesh. Detailed household-level food consumption data including both ethnic and region-specific foods were collected over 14 days, consisting of 7 visits each collecting two days of dietary recall information. Results: Out of 12240 households, 2061 consumed smoking tobacco only (16.8%), 3284 consumed smokeless tobacco only (26.8%), and 3348 consumed both (27.4%). Overall, 71% of the households reported expenditure on tobacco (smoking and/or smokeless) and were considered any-tobacco use households. Our results indicate that after controlling for household expenditure, household size, household child to adult ratio, place of residence (urban/rural), and region fixed effects, any-tobacco households consumed significantly lower amounts (g/ day) of milk and dairy products (β = -17.11, p<0.01) and oil/fat (β = -10.30, p<0.01) compared to tobacco non-use households (β: adjusted mean difference in food amount g/day/household). Conversely, consumption of cereal grains (β = 152.46, p<0.0001) and sugar (β = 8.16, p<0.0001) were significantly higher among any-tobacco households compared to non-tobacco households. We observed similar patterns for smoking-only, smokeless-only, and dual tobacco product households. Conclusions: Evidence of dietary differences between tobacco-use and non-use households may play an important role in developing strategies to address poor diet and malnutrition among tobacco-use households in a developing country like Bangladesh. This study provides one of the first reports addressing diet in relation to tobacco use from a developing country, particularly using nationally representative data. The finding that tobacco-use households have poorer dietary consumption than non-use households suggests that it is important to address tobacco use in the context of nutrition and development programs in low-income environments.
    • The Economics of Cupcakes: A Class Activity on the Law of Diminishing Marginal Product

      Storrie, Christine L. (Department of Economics and Finance, Middle Tennessee State University, 2020)
      Economics courses are typically lecture-based. This paper provides an alternative to the traditional chalk and talk method of classroom instruction by outlining a class activity that illustrates the concept of diminishing marginal productivity. The activity incorporates an experiment-based learning approach with minimal direction from the instructor and offers an alternative or complement to traditional lecture-based instruction methods. Although the main lesson is the law of diminishing marginal productivity, other economic concepts can also be incorporated and learned from this experiment. Variations of the experiment and possible outcomes are also discussed.
    • Facial asymmetry tracks genetic diversity among Gorilla subspecies

      McGrath, Kate; Eriksen, Amandine B.; García-Martínez, Daniel; Galbany, Jordi; Gómez-Robles, Aida; Massey, Jason S.; Fatica, Lawrence M.; Glowacka, Halszka; Arbenz-Smith, Keely; Muvunyi, Richard; et al. (The Royal Society, 2022-02)
      Mountain gorillas are particularly inbred compared to other gorillas and even the most inbred human populations. As mountain gorilla skeletal material accumulated during the 1970s, researchers noted their pronounced facial asymmetry and hypothesized that it reflects a population-wide chewing side preference. However, asymmetry has also been linked to environmental and genetic stress in experimental models. Here, we examine facial asymmetry in 114 crania from three Gorilla subspecies using 3D geometric morphometrics. We measure fluctuating asymmetry (FA), defined as random deviations from perfect symmetry, and population-specific patterns of directional asymmetry (DA). Mountain gorillas, with a current population size of about 1000 individuals, have the highest degree of facial FA (explaining 17% of total facial shape variation), followed by Grauer gorillas (9%) and western lowland gorillas (6%), despite the latter experiencing the greatest ecological and dietary variability. DA, while significant in all three taxa, explains relatively less shape variation than FA does. Facial asymmetry correlates neither with tooth wear asymmetry nor increases with age in a mountain gorilla subsample, undermining the hypothesis that facial asymmetry is driven by chewing side preference. An examination of temporal trends shows that stress-induced developmental instability has increased over the last 100 years in these endangered apes.
    • The Impact of Aquatic Invasive Mussels and Artificial Circulation Devices in Otsego Lake, NY

      Yokota, Kiyoko; Lord, Paul; Smith, Rylie; Kari Minissale; Stickney, Sierra (2022)
      Local watersheds have been infiltrated by aquatic invasive species (AIS), which are non-native organisms that may cause economic, public health, and recreational problems for community members. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (D. rostiformis bugensis) are AIS that have been found and reported in Otsego Lake within the last 15 years. Zebra and quagga mussels can have severe impacts on the overall ecology of the lake, therefore it is important to monitor their populations to determine what efforts need to be taken to mitigate their impacts. It is particularly critical to survey quagga mussels at this time, which are a recent invasion and have behaviors (deeper colonization and tolerance to cooler temperatures) that may allow them to have more severe effects on the dynamics within the lake. Additionally, Otsego Lake is subject to increasing use of shoreline de-icing devices, including agitators and bubblers, to protect docks and other structures. Our pilot study showed that an agitating de-icer pushed cold water deeper during cold snaps than in nearby ice-covered locations, which raised the concern for the overwintering benthic community structure. Existing literature suggests that the temperature and substrate preferences of quagga mussels may allow them to outcompete and displace zebra mussels over time. By surveying the population of both mussels, an analysis of the niche overlap between the two mussels can be conducted and predictions on their ecological relationship can be made. This project continues the work of Yokota Lab to survey the population, size, and age of these AIS in Otsego Lake, analyze the ecological dynamics between the two, and evaluate the impact that "de-icing" systems have on the lake’s benthic community. This presentation will represent the current methods used, the results collected, and the initial predictions made in regard to this project.
    • Potential Exposure to Cyanotoxins while Recreating, and Seasonally Dynamic Indicators of Microcystin Production

      Yokota, Kiyoko; Beale, Cole (2022)
      Cyanobacteria form harmful algal blooms (cHABs) and certain species can produce variable cyanotoxins, specifically the most common and toxic, Microcystin (MC) and its associated congeners. Cyanotoxins and MC in cHABs often reach concentrations that are deemed unsafe for human consumption and recreation. Recreational activities during cyanobacterial blooms can expose a person to a high cyanotoxin concentrations. I hypothesized that persons engaged in motorized recreational activities during cyanobacterial blooms will be exposed to measurable cyanotoxin concentrations without full-body immersion. I constructed a device to be towed behind a motorboat, and 10 sampling events occurred at Chautauqua Lake, a eutrophic lake with reoccurring cHABs. Splash collected contained 0.02 – 4.1 µg L⁻¹ of total microcystins (MC) by LC-MS/MS and was highly correlated to the lake surface concentration (R² = 0.95, p < 0.05). Surface MC was significantly correlated to the interaction of water temperature and Microcystis aeruginosa abundance (R² = 0.92, p < 0.05), over the traditionally used indicators total cyanobacterial abundance, chlorophyll a, and warm water. These results show certain recreational activities may expose a person to unsafe MC concentrations from splash contact alone, and limnological conditions surrounding MC production can vary between systems.
    • The Effects of Adverse Experiences on Education and Income: A Comparison of Cisgender and Transgender Communities

      Storrie, Christine; Kitissou, Kpoti; Laska, Alexa (2022)
      I assess the impact of adverse experiences on income and educational attainment and compare the results between cisgender and transgender communities. To estimate the relationship, I use data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) 2019 & 2020 surveys that include both optional modules for Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) Scores, and Sexual Orientation & Gender Identity (SOGI). The calculations for the estimates are made through a probit model that conveys the marginal effects of adverse experiences on income yielded later in life, and highest level of education achieved. My expected results are that facing adverse experiences decreases overall income and educational attainment, and that being both transgender and abused further decreases income and education levels.
    • Analysis of Northwestern Montana Lakes Based on Transparency and Temperature

      Stich, Dan; Ingelfinger, Cynthia; Minissale, Kari (2022)
      Lakes exhibit physical, chemical, and biological differences in their responses to climate change. Water transparency and temperature trends have been established as indicators of the quality of lakes in local and regional studies. To better understand responses of lakes to large-scale climatological changes, lakes near Glacier National Park have been regularly monitored through the Northwest Montana Lakes Network since 1992. Citizen science volunteers measured Secchi disk depths and temperature in 47 lakes in Montana, USA, to assess water quality and the potential impacts of climate change on lakes between June and August from 1992 through 2021. We modeled seasonal and annual variability in measurements across years, and among months while accounting for lake-specific variation in seasonal and annual trends. Both Secchi disk depth and temperature changed significantly across all lakes during this period. Secchi disk depth increased significantly in five lakes, and temperature increased significantly within twenty-six lakes. Lakes that were colder on average displayed greater increases in temperature than warmer lakes, and lakes with lower-than-average Secchi depths increased in clarity more than clearer lakes. Future analyses will be conducted on nutrient data received from these lakes to formulate a comprehensive analysis of trophic shifts coincident with climate change.
    • A Preliminary Analysis of Freshwater Mussel Population Dynamics in Texas

      Stich, Daniel; Guerrero, Brandon (2022)
      Freshwater mussels are among the most widespread riverine fauna in North America, constituting 50% or more of benthic biomass, but also one of the most imperiled. Although most of the 300 species in North American are poorly characterized, estimates of population parameters and detection probabilities from existing studies can be used to design monitoring programs that balance effort and statistical rigor. We used existing estimates of survival and detection probabilities within a simulation framework to assess minimum monitoring design requirements (numbers of sites and individuals) for analyzing freshwater mussel populations using mark-recapture methods. The simulations indicated that both the number of individuals available, and number of sampling occasions had potential to affect accuracy and precision of resultant estimates. Accuracy of survival estimates generally increased with increasing number of individuals until about 300 individuals and likewise increased with increasing number of sampling occasions until error was minimized at about 30 occasions. Precision similarly increased until a minimum of 250 individuals or 50 occasions. Future simulations will incorporate additional complexities and help guide management and research efforts. This will include exploration of robust design approaches incorporating both primary and secondary (replicate) sampling events for better estimation within shorter time frames.
    • Healthcare Practitioner Use of Nutrition-Related Resources

      Riddle, Emily; Kennedy, Caroline; Snow, Cassandra (2022)
      Introduction. Healthcare practitioners should regularly use evidence-based resources to inform ethical health care practice decisions. In nutrition, lack of consistent use of evidence-based resources is likely to lead to differences in messaging among healthcare professionals and subsequent increases in public confusion and mistrust in nutritional science. The frequency with which registered dietitians (RDNs) and non-RDN practitioners use evidence-based resources when providing patient care is unknown. In addition, the confidence and trust RDNs and non-RDNs have in the nutrition-related resources they use is unknown. Objectives. 1) To determine the confidence RDNs and non-RDNs have in their ability to find and use evidence-based resources, 2) to determine the level of trust RDNs and non-RDNs have in the sources of nutrition information they use, 3) to compare the nutrition-related resources RDNs and non-RDNs use when providing nutrition education to patients/clients. Methods. An exploratory, online, cross sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of 91 practitioners. The 15-question survey was tested for face validity. Recruitment occurred via email and through local and state-wide professional organization list-serves. Differences in resources used, confidence, and trust between RDNs and non-RDNs were determined using Chi-Square tests (p<0.05) using SPSS. Results. Fifty-one percent of respondents were RDNs and 46% of respondents were non-RDNs. RDNs felt significantly more confident than non-RDNs in their ability to find (p<0.01) and use (p<0.01) evidence-based information. There was no significant difference in the level of trust RDNs or non-RDNs had in the sources of nutrition information they use. More than 60% of RDNs and more than 70% of non-RDNs reported being unfamiliar with or never using multiple resources for evidence-based nutrition information, including Cochrane, Nutrition Evidence Systematic Reviews, and Practice-based Evidence in Nutrition. RDNs did use the evidence-based Evidence Analysis Library more frequently than non-RDNs (P<0.01). Conclusions. The majority of RDNs and a third of non-RDNs felt a high level of confidence in their ability to find and provide evidence-based nutrition information. However, both RDNs and non-RDNs reported being unfamiliar with or never using multiple resources for evidence-based nutrition information.
    • Utilizing Instagram to Strategically Plan, Execute, and Build a Brand Image for an Academic Program

      Ramkumar, Bharath; Alberts, Samantha (2022)
      Do social media platforms, such as Instagram, provide a unique opportunity for college programs to connect with their students (prospective and current), faculty, and alumni? If so, what are the best practices that can guide the creation of an engaging Instagram page for an academic program in a university? These are the questions that the authors of this project sought out to answer. Most top universities in the country, both private and public, have Instagram accounts. These institutions utilize Instagram to create and maintain an image for their academic “brand” and to build long-term relationships with their followers. They even run separate pages for individual academic programs and that is what the authors of this project explored by creating an official Instagram page for SUNY Oneonta’s Fashion and Textiles program in the Human Ecology department. The purpose of the Fashion and Textiles Instagram page (@fashion_sunyoneonta) was to inform and connect with current students, faculty, alumni, and prospective students about all things Fashion and Textiles. To accomplish this, the student presenter of this project ran the page under the guidance of the faculty member in the program through an independent study course. The objective of this presentation is to share the strategy employed to develop a successful Fashion and Textiles Instagram page with the intention of providing a model for future students, faculty, or staff who may take over the operations of the page. This presentation is also intended to serve as a model for other academic programs that wish to set up and run an official Instagram account. In this presentation, the authors will go into detail on how they used programs such as Excel, and Canva to create and organize weekly posts for the Instagram page. The presentation will illustrate the effort that goes into planning each post, while showing various analytics and content, along with the mistakes that were made along the way. One major accomplishment of running this page was learning the proper communication skills it takes to run a social media account for an academic program. The page also prides itself on gaining 205 followers in just 13 months. The Fashion and Textiles page also has a certified account following the page, this account is Fantastic Fungi from the hit documentary on Netflix “Fantastic Fungi.” The evolution and accomplishments of the page in just a year had surpassed all expectations, but the greatest accomplishment has been being able to showcase how incredible the Fashion and Textile program, students and faculty at SUNY Oneonta really are. The approach and strategies behind these accomplishments will be discussed in this presentation.
    • Appreciate Theatre: A New, Open-source Textbook for SUNY Oneonta’s Introductory Theatre Course

      Pipino, Kiara; Canavan, Gillian (2022)
      Theatre Appreciation at SUNY Oneonta is a required course for theatre majors/minors but is also a popular course outside of the major, as it fills general education and liberal arts requirements. The curriculum of this course surveys the art of theatre, beginning with its ancient origins to modern day drama. The challenge with covering such a broad range of topics and time periods is finding a textbook that efficiently guides students through the course content. Kiara Pipino, a theatre professor at SUNY Oneonta has organized the creation of a new, open-source textbook entitled Appreciate Theatre to be used in our college as well as being made available for use in other educational institutions. Authors of this textbook include not only Professor Pipino, but additional members of the Theatre Department faculty as well as various theatre professionals and academics. When the textbook is used in the classroom, ideally, the fifteen chapters will each correlate to one week of course content. One of SUNY Oneonta’s theatre students, Gillian Canavan, has begun work as an editor, as well as searching for open-source photographs to include in the textbook. Photographs from SUNY Oneonta’s own theatrical productions will also be included with permission from student performers. The consideration of a student’s perspective in this process is intended to provide input on how to keep students engaged with the course content, especially those who are not specifically interested in the area of theatre. This will be done through the editing process as well as in a concluding chapter on the potential reasons fellow students should “Appreciate Theatre.” The goal of this textbook is to be made a widely accessible resource, and in order to do this, it is to be published on Pressbooks, an online platform that specializes in professional educational open-source content. The writing, editing, and publication of Appreciate Theatre is currently underway, and is planned to be available for use in the Fall 2022 semester.
    • The Development of Hominin Muscles of Mastication

      McGrath, Kate; Lyons, Jacob (2022)
      The temporalis muscle travels through the zygomatic arch, attaching the mandible to the cranium, and facilitating mandible elevation. This elevation is what constitutes the motion of chewing, or mastication. Hominins are primates belonging the same evolutionary line as modern humans, including species like Australopithecus afarensis, Homo neanderthalensis, and Ardipithecus ramidus. Stress upon the mastication musculature from the act of chewing can cause direct impacts on the bones of the skull, widening the space of the zygomatic arch or cheek bone, and forming a sagittal crest on top of the head. These stressors are often caused by diet and what the density or type of food the subject is consuming as well as the numbers of hours spent chewing per day. This project examines the size of the zygomatic arch, postorbital constriction, palate breadth, and molar size in order to gain a better understanding of the evolutionary development of modern human mastication and the diets of our ancestors. The general trend is a reduction in the robusticity of the masticatory system over time, coinciding with the adoption of cooking, greater incorporation of meat in the diet, and subsequent increase in brain size.
    • Intimate Partner Violence in College Relationships

      Lau, Katherine; Sumner, Amanda L.; Le, Jennifer U.; Proux, Sydney; Kinne, Grace M.; Pavia, Gillian H. (2022)
      In the United States, 17-39% of couples report experiencing interpersonal violence annually (Caetano et al., 2008). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is broadly defined as the psychological, physical, or sexual victimization of a partner within an intimate relationship (Edwards & Slyaska, 2015). Recently, a growing rate of adolescents have reported experiencing IPV (Edwards & Slyaska, 2015). Thirty-seven percent of adolescents reported experiencing dating violence within the past year, and retrospectively, 69% of adults reported having experienced dating violence during adolescence (Taylor & Mumford, 2016). Similar problems have been reported in colleges; a third of students have reported experiencing either sexual or physical IPV (Scherer et al., 2014). Although adult females typically report experiencing IPV at a greater rate than adult males, one-in-three males report experiencing IPV victimization over the course of their life (Machado, 2020). The experience of IPV and its consequences are not a short-lived event. Among adults, perpetrators and victims of IPV report experiencing significant long-lasting psychological distress, such as depression, powerlessness, and PTSD (Caetano et al., 2008; Overstreet et al., 2015). IPV victimization in women has been associated with a greater likelihood of contracting sexually transmitted infections, HIV (Overstreet et al., 2015), and cardiovascular disease. This could be due to sexual exploitation experienced by victims of IPV, and engaging in other high-risk behaviors, like poor diet, exercise, and smoking (Campbell et al., 2008; Halpern et al., 2017). Research in young college adults found similar results. In a longitudinal study, compared to those who didn’t experience IPV, college students who experienced IPV, reported experiencing an increase in eating disorders, depressive symptoms, smoking, and having an overall decline in health (Bonomi, 2013). Lastly, 27-56% of IPV victims report revictimization, or getting into multiple abusive relationships (Iverson et al., 2013). Although it’s important to understand the consequences of IPV, it’s necessary to understand what factors may lead to IPV. The first goal of the ongoing study is to investigate what factors may be associated with the risk of becoming involved in a violent relationship. In a large systematic review on female victims of IPV (Pereira et al., 2020), factors such as family identity and expectations, reinforcement of gender roles, and social class and education levels were associated with remaining in violent relationships (Iverson et al., 2013). Further, witnessing or experiencing first-hand abuse during childhood has been linked to experiencing later IPV (Pereira et al., 2020). A possible explanation for this is intergenerational violence; household abuse may become accepted and normalized within the family unit. These dynamics may create feelings of self-blame, low self-esteem, and anxiety as well as contribute to the future minimization of violent behaviors and increase commitment to relationships characterized by violence (Pereira et al., 2020). We are also investigating these factors in how they specifically relate to male victims and their susceptibility to remaining in violent relationships, as they comprise an estimated 35% of IPV victims, but remain significantly underreported and insufficiently supported within communities due to stigma and speculation (Machado et al., 2017).
    • The Reactive Vulnerable Narcissist and the Complex Relationship between Narcissism and Aggression

      Lau, Katherine; Proux, Sydney; Le, Jennifer U. (2022)
      The purpose of this study is to examine how vulnerable and grandiose narcissism are uniquely related to the four subtypes of aggression. Narcissism is characterized by an exceptional sense of entitlement, grandiosity, and lack of empathy (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Narcissism is often associated with aggression. One theory to explain the relationship between narcissism and aggression is the theory of threatened egotism (Baumeister et al., 2000) which proposes aggression as a method of defending one’s highly favorable view of the self against someone who seeks to undermine that view. Narcissism can be divided into two subtypes: grandiose and vulnerable. Grandiose narcissism (GN) refers to individuals with high self-esteem who tend to be entitled, outgoing, and charismatic (Du et al., 2021). In contrast, vulnerable narcissism (VN) refers to individuals with low self-esteem who are egocentric andhave a strong sense of entitlement. People with VN tend to have more avoidant interpersonal styles than GN. Aggression is violent or hostile behavior directed towards others (Tedeschi & Felson, 1994), and places a high cost on society (Stattin & Magnusson, 1989). Aggression has two functions. Proactive aggression is the purposeful use of harm to accomplish a goal. Reactive aggression differs as it is retaliatory behavior resulting from frustration or perceived provocation. Aggression can also take on two forms. Overt aggression includes direct physical and verbal harm towards another, while relational aggression is the intent to harm another person's social standing or reputation through emotionally manipulative tactics, such as exclusion or spreading rumors (Rose et al., 2004; Werner & Crick, 1999). The combinations of these create four unique subtypes of aggression, proactive relational (PR), proactive overt (PO), reactive relational (RR), and reactive overt (RO). Although aggression and narcissism have been examined, few studies have looked at the four subtypes of aggression and their unique relationships to GN and VN. We hypothesize that VN will be positively correlated with RO and RR aggression. This is because low self-esteem and sense of entitlement, which define VN, may cause people to be easily offended and responsive to potential threats. Our second hypothesis is that we expect a positive association between GN and PO and PR aggression. Grandiose narcissists may use proactive aggression in the pursuit of goals and in the attainment of power. Regression analyses were used to test the associations between the subtypes of narcissism and aggression. Results indicated that grandiose narcissism and vulnerable narcissism were both uniquely associated with proactive relational, proactive overt, reactive relational, and reactive overt aggression. Results also showed a differential pattern of associations, with GN having a stronger association to proactive subtypes and VN having a stronger association to reactive subtypes of aggression.