Weak State caused long duration of insurgency between 1995 to 2016
Cast your vote
You can rate an item by clicking the amount of stars they wish to award to this item.
When enough users have cast their vote on this item, the average rating will also be shown.
Your vote was cast
Thank you for your feedback
Thank you for your feedback
Political opportunity structure
Global terrorism dataset
State effectiveness score
State legitimacy score
Security effectiveness score
Security legitimacy score
Political effectiveness score
Political legitimacy score
Economic legitimacy score
Economic effectiveness score
Social effectiveness score
Social legitimacy score
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractSaddam Hussein’s government and the Taliban regime were both toppled in the early months of U.S. invasion. Nevertheless, the U.S. and coalitions’ supported government in both Iraq and Afghanistan have been battling insurgencies since the U.S. invasion. To be exact, the U.S. has been conducting counterinsurgency campaigns in Afghanistan since 2002, and in Iraq since 2003. Why would such operations last so long despite U.S. military might? Many scholars have argued differently on the causes of long duration insurgencies but none has given an argument that can explain all cases of prolonged insurgencies. In this paper, I used the theory of political opportunity structure which posits that “repertoires for protest have traditionally been seen as influenced by political opportunity structure, consisting of both a formal, institutional aspect and an informal, cultural one (Porta 2008, 223)” to argue that weak states caused long duration insurgency between the years of 1995 to 2016. My argument gives another alternative argument that can explain the causes of long duration insurgencies. Using 66 cases of insurgency, from the Global Terrorism dataset, I showed that state weakness caused long duration insurgency between the periods of 1995 to 2016, but the only indicators of state weakness that are statistically significant to the duration of insurgency are security effectiveness score and security legitimacy score. Therefore, my policy recommendation is that for states to carry on successful Counterinsurgency campaigns they need to focus on improving the capability of their security forces, and seek public approval of their security apparatus .
The following license files are associated with this item:
- Creative Commons
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 United States
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
A Study of the Effect of Baroque Classical Music on Pre-First Graders’ Performance on a Group Reading TestSmith, Arthur; McMahon, Carol M.; The College at Brockport (1993-12-01)The purpose of this study was to determine if the playing of Baroque Classical music during the administration of a group reading test would affect the performance of Pre-first graders on the test. Statistical analysis of control and experimental reading scores of Pre-first graders on the Gates-MacGinite Reading Test revealed the following results. The playing of Baroque Classical music during testing did not significantly affect reading scores. Although no statistically significant change in reading achievement occurred, a trend towards improvement was apparent. This trend was evidenced by an overall increase in stanine score among the students. Small sample size and a sample not indicative of the general population were limiting factors of this study. Further investigation in this area is warranted.
The Effectiveness of Listening Instruction for First Grade Listening ComprehensionWhited, Frances Moroney; LaMonica, Patricia M.; The College at Brockport (1979-08-01)Thin study investigated the effects of listening instruction as a method of improving listening comprehension skills of first grade students. It also examined the relationship between student's listening comprehension and reading comprehension, viewing the differences between these areas when students were grouped by sex. The subjects consisted of 16 first grade students, 7 fema1es and 9 males. To determine the listening comprehension level of each student, the Analytical Reading Inventory Form A was administered. The students then received listening instruction in both general and critical listening skills for a period of eight months. Following the instructional period, Form C of the Analytical Reading Inventory was given to determine growth in listening comprehension. Reading comprehension scores were obtained from the Stanford Achievement Test. A correlated t-test was used to determine the significant differences in the listening comprehension scores. Scores from the postlistening comprehension test and the reading comprehension test were analyzed to determine correlation coefficients. Data indicated that listening instruction did significantly improve listening comprehension scores. No significant relationship was found between the postlistening comprehension scores and the reading comprehension scores. There were no significant differences reported between the sexes in listening or reading comprehension. The findings suggest that listening instruction does significantly help to increase listening comprehension.
The Effect of Conceptual Tempo on the Standard Cloze and Maze Performance of Third Grade ChildrenWhited, Frances Moroney; Marolf, Judith R.; The College at Brockport (1984-05-01)This study investigated the effect of the cognitive style dimension of conceptual tempo (reflection/impulsivity) on the standard cloze and maze performance of thirty-one third grade children. In addition the relationships among reading comprehension, scores on a standard cloze passage, and scores on a maze passage were determined. Each subject was administered the Matching Familiar Figures Test and two types of cloze: a standard cloze passage with every eighth word deleted and replaced by a blank, and a maze passage with every eighth word replaced within the text by two alternate words in addition to the correct word. One-half of the maze passage choices were graphically similar, and one-half were graphically dissimilar. Students were classified either reflective or impulsive according to scores on the MFFT. Both cloze passages were scored for exact response. A series of t-tests and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were computed to analyze the data. Results indicated that impulsive children had significantly lower scores on the standard cloze passage than did reflective children. Impulsive children also had lower scores than did reflective children on the maze passage, although these findings were not statistically significant. Significant positive correlations were established among reading comprehension, scores on the standard cloze passage, and scores on the maze passage. Recommendations for further research included replication of the study controlling for reading level of both the subject and the cloze passages. Implications for classroom practice were also discussed. Educators need to identify reflective and impulsive children in the classroom and employ appropriate instructional and evaluation materials. Using the cloze procedure to modify the conceptual tempo of impulsive children was recommended by the researcher.