Enhancing response of a protein conformational switch by using two disordered ligand binding domains.
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alternate frame folding
loop closure entropy
mutually exclusive folding
Journal titleFrontiers in molecular biosciences
Publication Begin page1114756
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractProtein conformational switches are often constructed by fusing an input domain, which recognizes a target ligand, to an output domain that establishes a biological response. Prior designs have employed binding-induced folding of the input domain to drive a conformational change in the output domain. Adding a second input domain can in principle harvest additional binding energy for performing useful work. It is not obvious, however, how to fuse two binding domains to a single output domain such that folding of both binding domains combine to effect conformational change in the output domain. Here, we converted the ribonuclease barnase (Bn) to a switchable enzyme by duplicating a C-terminal portion of its sequence and appending it to its N-terminus, thereby establishing a native fold (OFF state) and a circularly permuted fold (ON state) that competed for the shared core in a mutually exclusive fashion. Two copies of FK506 binding protein (FKBP), both made unstable by the V24A mutation and one that had been circularly permuted, were inserted into the engineered barnase at the junctions between the shared and duplicated sequences. Rapamycin-induced folding of FK506 binding protein stretched and unfolded the native fold of barnase the mutually exclusive folding effect, and rapamycin-induced folding of permuted FK506 binding protein stabilized the permuted fold of barnase by the loop-closure entropy principle. These folding events complemented each other to turn on RNase function. The cytotoxic switching mechanism was validated in yeast and human cells, and with purified protein. Thermodynamic modeling and experimental results revealed that the dual action of loop-closure entropy and mutually exclusive folding is analogous to an engine transmission in which loop-closure entropy acts as the low gear, providing efficient switching at low ligand concentrations, and mutually exclusive folding acts as the high gear to allow the switch to reach its maximum response at high ligand concentrations.
CitationSekhon H, Ha J-H and Loh SN (2023), Enhancing response of a protein conformational switch by using two disordered ligand binding domains. Front. Mol. Biosci. 10:1114756. doi: 10.3389/fmolb.2023.1114756
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- Creative Commons
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Copyright © 2023 Sekhon, Ha and Loh.
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