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The SUNY Open Access Repository (SOAR) is a centrally managed online digital repository that stores, indexes, and makes available scholarly and creative works of SUNY faculty, students, and staff across SUNY campuses. SOAR serves as an open access platform for those SUNY campuses that do not have their own open access repository environments. 

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  • A Twin Study of Sexual Behavior in Men

    Lyons, Michael J.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Buchting, Francisco; Meyer, Joanne M.; Eaves, Lindon; Toomey, Rosemary; Eisen, Seth A.; Goldberg, Jack; Faraone, Stephen V.; Ban, Rachel J.; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2004-04)
    The role of genetic and environmental influences on age of initiation of first sexual relations and engaging in sexual activity with multiple partners (10 or more partners in 1 year) was investigated in male twins (N = 6, 744) from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Individual differences in both types of sexual behaviors were heritable, but only age of onset of sexual relations was significantly influenced by the environment shared by the twins. There was a moderate negative correlation between age of initiation of sexual relations and the multiple partners variable; initiating sexual relations earlier was associated with a higher probability of having multiple partners. The additive genetic influence on age of initiation also influenced the multiple partners variable. The substantial unique environmental influences on each variable were uncorrelated with each other. The data suggest that the observed association between age of initiation of sexual relations and having multiple partners is due to genetic influences common to both behaviors.
  • Associations Between ADHD and Psychoactive Substance use Disorders:Findings from a Longitudinal Study of High-Risk Siblings of ADHD Children

    Milberger, Sharon; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V.; Wilens, Timothy; Chu, Monica P. (Wiley, 1997-01)
    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within candidate genes for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with the age at onset for ADHD. One hundred and forty-three SNPs were genotyped across five candidate genes (DRD5, SLC6A3, HTR1B, SNAP25, DRD4) for ADHD in 229 families with at least one affected offspring. SNPs with the highest estimated power to detect an association with age at onset were selected for each candidate gene, using a power-based screening procedure that does not compromise the nominal significance level. A time-to-onset analysis for family-based samples was performed on these SNPs to determine if an association exists with age at onset for ADHD. Seven consecutive SNPs surrounding the D5 dopamine receptor gene (DRD5), were associated with the age at onset for ADHD; FDR adjusted q-values ranged from 0.008 to 0.023. This analysis indicates that individuals with the risk genotype develop ADHD earlier than individuals with any other genotype. A haplotype analysis across the 6 significant SNPs that were in linkage disequilibrium with one another, CTCATA, was also found to be significant (p-value = 0.02). We did not observe significant associations with age at onset for the other candidate loci tested. Although definitive conclusions await independent replication, these results suggest that a variant in DRD5 may affect age at onset for ADHD
  • The Impact of Ruling Family Board Members on the Performance of Commercial Banks

    Kienpin, Tee; Garas, Samy (Association for Accountancy & Business Affairs, 2021)
    We examine the impact of royal family involvement in the ownership and strategic management of commercial banks within the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region. Existing finance literature has examined the impact of board members with political connections on bank performance to find mixed evidence of whether such connections have a positive or negative impact. However, such empirical studies have not been applied to the commercial banks of the GCC region. Our empirical analysis uses four separate metrics of performance to examine what influence board membership, board chairmanship and bank ownership shares by a royal family member has on bank performance. Our panel data analysis of GCC commercial bank data across six countries from 2013 to 2018 reveals that all three potential royal family roles exert a positive influence over GCC commercial bank performance. We derive these empirical results using relevant control variables at both the firm level and the industry level. Furthermore, we apply a system generalized moments of methods specification to our sample and find that these results are invariant to various specification robustness checks. Our results appear to support the Resource Dependency Theory (RDT), where the commercial banks rely on external resources to enhance financial performance.
  • Wildlife Response to Wildfire in a Northern New York Jack Pine Barrens

    Cave, Hannah; Adams, Matthew; Jaeger, Tristan; Peet, Taylor; Staats, Lloyd; Garneau, Danielle; Lesser, Mark (MDPI AG, 2021-05-25)
    Natural disturbances are an integral part of forested ecosystem function and successional path-ways. In many forested ecosystems, wildfires are critical to shaping composition and structure, which in turn has major implications for wildlife usage and behavior. In July 2018 a wildfire burned 225 ha of the Altona Flat Rock pine barrens in northern New York. This event presented the opportunity to study how wildlife respond to the immediate effects of disturbance in this unique habitat but also how that response would change through time as regeneration progressed. Game cameras were deployed from September 2018-September 2020 at two reference (unburned) and two disturbed (burned) sites within the pine barrens. We analyzed total and seasonal occurrences, to determine how usage differed between disturbed and reference conditions, and with time since disturbance. Additionally, for coyote (Canis latrans, Say), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, Zimmermann), and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus, Erxleben), we evaluated daily activity patterns and overlap to determine how predator-prey relationships differed between conditions, and with time since disturbance. Over 730 days a total of 1,048 wildlife occurrences were captured across 23 wildlife species. Fifty-seven percent of all occurrences were at reference sites with over 100 more occurrences than disturbed sites, however, differences were most pronounced immediately following the fire and overall occurrences have grown more similar between the sites over time. Specifically, deer and hare were found more often at reference sites immediately following the fire, but shifted to using both conditions equally by the first growing season. Habitat overlap among sympatric prey (deer, hare) can be explained by understory regeneration increasing foraging opportunities and concealment cover in the disturbed condition, while predators (coyotes) tracked prey availability regardless of the habitat condition. This study provides wildlife management guidance on habitat use and response to disturbance for this unique sandstone pavement barrens.
  • Predicted Metabolic Function of the Gut Microbiota of Drosophila melanogaster

    Ankrah, Nana Y. D.; Barker, Brandon E.; Song, Joan; Wu, Cindy; McMullen, John G.; Douglas, Angela E. (American Society for Microbiology, 2021-06-29)
    An important goal for many nutrition-based microbiome studies is to identify the metabolic function of microbes in complex microbial communities and their impact on host physiology. This research can be confounded by poorly understood effects of community composition and host diet on the metabolic traits of individual taxa. Here, we investigated these multiway interactions by constructing and analyzing metabolic models comprising every combination of five bacterial members of the Drosophila gut microbiome (from single taxa to the five-member community of Acetobacter and Lactobacillus species) under three nutrient regimes. We show that the metabolic function of Drosophila gut bacteria is dynamic, influenced by community composition, and responsive to dietary modulation. Furthermore, we show that ecological interactions such as competition and mutualism identified from the growth patterns of gut bacteria are underlain by a diversity of metabolic interactions, and show that the bacteria tend to compete for amino acids and B vitamins more frequently than for carbon sources. Our results reveal that, in addition to fermentation products such as acetate, intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, including 2-oxoglutarate and succinate, are produced at high flux and cross-fed between bacterial taxa, suggesting important roles for TCA cycle intermediates in modulating Drosophila gut microbe interactions and the potential to influence host traits. These metabolic models provide specific predictions of the patterns of ecological and metabolic interactions among gut bacteria under different nutrient regimes, with potentially important consequences for overall community metabolic function and nutritional interactions with the host.

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